Thursday, June 23, 2011

Our Solar System Facts Formation And Discovery

Our Solar System Facts Formation And Discovery
The solar system is the combination of the sun and the astronomical objects bound to by gravity and all of which formed from the collapse of a giant molecular cloud around 4.6 billions years ago.There are many objects in the universe that orbit the sun and most of the mass is contained within eight relatively solitary planets whose orbit are almost circular and lie within a nearly flat disc which is called ecliptic plane.The four planets especially inner,Mercury,Venus,Earth and Mars are known as the terrestrial planets and they are primarily composed of rock and metal.Similarly the four outer planets, gas giant is the more massive than the terrestrials.The two big Jupiter and Saturn are made of hydrogeb and helium and the two outermost planets Uranus and Neptune are composed of ices like water,ammonia and methane and are also called ice giants.

Solar system is home for two regions populated by smaller objects.The asteroid belt which is in between Mars and Jupiter,is similar to the terrestrial planets as it is composed of rock and metal.The Neptune's orbit lie trans Neptune objects is composed mostly of such as water,ammonia and methane.Five individuals objects Ceres,Pluto,Haumea,Makemake and Eris are known to be large to have been rounded bu their own gravity within the two regions. They are also termed dwarf planets.In this two regions in the thousands of small bodies, various other small bodies populations like comets,centaurs and interplanetary dust freely move between these two regions.Humanity with the notable exceptions did not recognize the existence of solar system for many thousands years.People used to believe that the earth to be stationary at the center of the universe and different from the divine through the sky.


The main components of the solar system is the sun, a main sequence G3 which contains 99.86 percent of the system known mass and dominates it gravitationally.The sun's four largest orbiting bodies the gas giant account for 99 percent of the remaining mass with Jupiter and saturn together comprising more than 90 percent.The overall structure of the charted region of the solar system consists of the sun,four relatively small inner planets surrounded by a belt of rocky asteroids and four gas giants surrounded bu the outer Kuiper belt of icy objects.Sometimes the astronomers informally divided this structure into seperate structure.The inner solar system includes the four terrestrial planets and the main asteroid belt while the outer solar system includes the four gas giant planets which is beyond the asteroids.When the Kuiper belt is discovered, the outermost parts of the solar system are considered a distinct region which consists of the objects beyond Neptune.

According to the Kepler's laws of planetary motion the orbit of the objects or each object travels along an eclipse with the sun at one focus.Objects which are closer to sun move more quickly as they are more affected buOur Solar System Facts Formation And Discovery the sun's gravity.The orbit of the planet is nearly circular but many comment,asteroids and Kuiper belt object follow highly elliptical orbits.A body closet approach to the sun is known as perihelion and its most distant point from the sun is known as aphelion.Many representation of the solar system show orbit the same distance apart because of the vast distance involved.But with the few exceptions the farther a planet or belt is from the sun the larger the distance between it and previous orbit in reality.In the solae system, most of the planets possess secondary system of their own being orbited by planetary objects which is called natural satellites or moons or in the case of the four gas giants by planetary rings, thin bands of tiny particles that orbit them in unison.The inner solar system's objects are made of rock,the collective name for compounds with high melting points such as silicates,iron or nickel wich remained under the all conditions in protoplanetary nebula.Ices like water, methane,ammonia,hydrogen and carbon dioxide have melting points up to few hundreds kelvins while their phase depends on the ambient pressure and temperature. They can be found as ices,liquids or gases in various places in the solar system.


The Sun comprises all the matters in the solar system and it is composed of roughly 98 percent hydrogen and helium.similarly the Jupiter and Saturn that comprise nearly all the remaining matters possess atmospheres composed of roughly 99 percent of those same elements.A composition gradient,created by the heat and light pressure from the sun exists inthe solar system.The boundary in the solar system beyond which those volatile substances could condense is known as the frost line and it lies at roughly 4 AU from the Sun.

Tuesday, June 14, 2011

The Solar And Lunar Eclipses In The Year 2011

The Solar And Lunar Eclipses In The Year 2011
A eclipse means the partial or complete obscuring, relative to a designated observer of one celestial body by another or the period of time during winch such an obscuration occurs.In another words, eclipse is an interception or obscuration of the light of the sun,moon or other planet body, by the intervention of some other body, either between it and the eye or between the luminous body and illuminated by it.There may be especially two types of eclipse, they are lunar eclipse and solar eclipse.A lunar eclipse is caused by the moon passing through the earth's shadow and solar eclipse is caused by the moon coming between the sun and observer.The obscuration of planet or star by the moon pr a planet, though of the nature of an eclipse is called a oocultation.Similarly the eclipse of small portion of the sun by Mercury or Venus is called a transit of the planet.

There will be total 6 eclipses in the 2011.Four partial solar eclipse and two lunar eclipse will take place in the year 2011.Every year minimum two and maximum 5 solar eclipses take place whereas not over two can be total eclipses.As mentioned above four solar and two lunar eclipses take place which is very add as it is 4:2 grouping in only one year.In the 21 first century only 6 cases with 4:2 combination of the solar and lunar eclipses will occur in 2011,2029,2047,2065,2076 and 2094.First of all i am going to describe about the solar eclipse.

Solar Eclipses of the 2011:

Partial Solar Eclipse of the January 04.

This is the first solar eclipse of 2011 which occurs at the Moon's ascending node in the eastern Sagittarius.This partial solar eclipse will be visible from much of the Europe, North Africa and central Asia.The penumbra shadow first touches Earth's surface in northern Algeria at 6:40:11 UT and the shadow moves east, Western Europe will be treated to a partial eclipse.From the European cities like Madrid,Paris,London and Copenhagen, the eclipse magnitude will give early morning rises as excellent opportunities for the photographer.

The greatest eclipse occurs at 8:50:35 in northern Sweden with the magnitude of 0.858.At the same time Moon's shadow's axis will pass a mere 510 km above Earth's surface.A sunset will be visible from the central Russia,Kazakhstan,Mongolia and northern China and partial eclipse ends when the penumbra leaves Earth at 11:00:54 TU.

Partial Solar Eclipse of the Jun 01.

The next partial solar eclipse will occur when the center of the Moon shadow misses the earth and it is visible in the polar region of the Earth.This eclipse starts at sunrise in Serbia and northern China where the penumbra shadow first touches Earth at 19:25:18Tu.After the tow hours the greatest eclipse occurs at 21:16:11TU with magnitude of 0.601 which will be visible from the arctic coast of western Serbia.The partial eclipse will be visible from the Alaska and the northern Canada, the southern limit of penumbra falls along a curve from South of Fairbanks to central New Brunswick and Novascotia.The eclipses with 0.462 magnitude will be visible in the Reykjavik,Iceland just before the sunset.The partial eclipse ends at 23:06:56UT when the penumbra leaves Earth just north of Newfoundland in the Atlantic Ocean.

Partial Solar Eclipse of July 01:The Solar And Lunar Eclipses In The Year 2011

Just after the one month of the second partial solar eclipse the third partial solar eclipse take place which is visible over small area of the coast of Antarctica.This eclipse take place at the Moon's descending node in western Gemini.This is the first solar eclipse of Saros cycle 156 an eclipse cycle with nearly 6585.3213 days.It starts at 19:25:18UT and end 23:06%^ UT and the utmost eclipse, will arise at 8:39:30 UT with a magnitude of 0.096 at latitude 65degree09.5' longitude+28degrer38.9'

Partial Solar Eclipse of November 25:

This is the fourth and final solar partial eclipse of the year 2011.This eclipse occurs at the Moon's ascending node in western Scorpius.This will be visible from the high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere and Southern South Africa,Antarctica, Tasmania and most of New Zea land.This eclipse begins at 4:23:14UT and ends at 8:17:16 UT. The full eclipse will appear at 6:21:24UT with magnitude of 0.096 near the coast of Antarctica at latitude -68degree34.1',longitude+82degree24'.

So these are the four partial solar eclipse of the year 2011. Now the following are the two lunar eclipses of the 2011.

Total Lunar Eclipse of June 15:
The Solar And Lunar Eclipses In The Year 2011
This is the first lunar ellipse of the year 2011 which occurs at the moon's ascending node in southern Ophiuchus about 7degree west of the Lagoon Nebula.The Moon passes through the Earth's umbral shadow during this rather than long event.The total phase will last around 100 minute.The Moon's contact times with Earth's umbral and penumbral shadows are-penumbral eclipse starts at 17:24:34Ut,partial eclipse starts at 18:22:56 UT, total eclipse begins at 19:22:30 UT, greater eclipse starts at 20:22:37 UT, total eclipse ends at 21:02:42 UT, partial eclipse ends at 22:02:15 UT and penumbral eclipse ends at 23:00:45UT.The umbral magnitude will be 1.6998 at the instant of the greatest eclipse as the Moon's center passes within 5.3 arc-minutes of the shadow axis.The Moon's southern limb will be 32.8 arc-minutes from the edge of the umbra while the northern limb will be 22.3 arc-minutes from the umbra's edge.Therefore the northern side of the Moon than the southern regions that lie deeper in the shadow.It is really difficult to estimate the exact brightness distributions in the umbra so the observers are encouraged to estimate the Danjon value at the different times during the totality.This eclipse is visible from South America,Western Africa.In western Asia, Australia and the Philippines the lunar eclipse will appear just before the sunrise.

Total Lunar Eclipse of December 10:

This is the last eclipse of the year 2011 or total lunar eclipse which take place at the Moon's descending node in the eastern Taurus,four days after it the Moon's orbital trajectory takes it through he southern half of Earth's umbral shadow.This lunar eclipse lasts 51 minutes although the eclipse is not central.The timing of the major eclipses phases are,penumbral eclipse begins at 11:33:32UT, partial eclipse starts at 12:45:42UT,total eclipse The Solar And Lunar Eclipses In The Year 2011starts at14:06:16,greatest eclipse starts at14:31:49UT,total eclipse ends at14:57:24UT,partial eclipse ends at16:17:58UT and penumbral eclipse ends at 17:30:00UT.At the instant of the greatest eclipse, the Moon lies at the zenith in the pacific ocean near gaum and the northern Mariana Islands.When the Moon's center passes 21.4 arc-minutes south of the shadow axis, the umbral eclipse magnitude reach at 1.1061.The Moon;s northern limb is 6.4 arc-minutes south of the shadow axis and 33.3arc-minutes from the umbra's edge.The northern half of the Moon will appear much darker that the southern half because of the Moon's southern limb lays 36.5 arc-minutes from the shadow center and 3.2 arc-minutes from the southern edge of the umbra,in contrast.because of the Moon;s samples a large range of umbral depth during totality its appearance will change with time.This eclipse event can be seen from Asia and Australia.But for the northern American the eclipse is in the progress when the Moon sets with western observers favored by a larger fraction of the eclipse before moon set.Since the early eclipse phase occur before moon rise the observer may miss this phase throughout the Europe and Africa.

Friday, June 10, 2011

The Most Important Tips for Maintaining The Good Habit

Most Important Tips for Maintaining The Good Habit
Habit that is an acquired pattern of the behavior that occurs automatically.Most of the life habitual. We do the same things that we did yesterday, the day before and every day.Habit may be good and bad but that makes us who we are.The most important things is controlling them.If we know how to handle the our habit then even small effort may change the big changes in the life.for example, students go to school to get education for the better or more prosperous life.But many of the habit should be truly be successful that are learned outside the classroom.Developing the good habit helps the individuals of all ages.So habit may both good and bad but here i am going to describe about good habit.If we make the routines of the developing the good habit that will help us to create the success for the rest of the life.They are the essential tool for our life to live better life. So each and everyone should make good habit in their life.Otherwise they will become the worthless person in the world.So i can say that good habit everyone needs for success.Following are the some of the important tips for the goods habit.
  • Eat a Healthy Food: We know that our brain is the most important organ, so it needs healthy diet to perform the activities at the peak.We can make a good habit about it.Like the students should not go to school without eating the food or with empty stomach.They should to be trained themselves early to eat balanced food.We should tend to carry the habits we learn when we are young forward with us for most of our lives.Because learning to eat right food now can avoid the many health issues in the future. So it is the first tips for maintaining the good habit.
  • Learn to Exercise:The another important tips that helps to maintain the good habit is to learn to exercise.Exercise is very important thing in our life. Because if we do regular exercise, it makes us healthy.So we should be active physically to stay healthy.We need to make exercise routines that are fun and match to our life.So developing the exercise routine is also the good habit that increases the quality or quantity of our life.
  • Developing the Good Habit of Study: Studying is a effective itself.We all are the lifelong learner in this universe.We should study and gather the knowledge in effective and efficient manner.Learning how to study and acquire the knowledge to succeed doesn't occur naturally it is the habit.So we should increase our skill and ask other to develop our good study habit. So it an important good habit tips.
  • Respect the Environment: Environment is very essential part of the life.So to respect the environment is another important tips for maintaining the good habit.Because we only have this one world and we depend on it for our survival.Everyone needs to protect the environment.So we should develop the habit that will help us to be good environmental citizens for lifetime.
  • Know What We Want to Make a habit:first of all we should be well known what we want to make a good habit. This is very important to every individuals.for example:if you want to play the flute, first you have to be well known about music that will make you better person.So to make you know the fact about good habit is also an important thing to maintain the good habit.
  • Get on a Good Schedule:We everyone need to make the routines and structure of everything.To perform the best we have to make the regular schedule. We should do everything in time according to our made schedule.If we are the parents then is is our job to teach this habit to our children early.Because this routine will stay with person their whole life and help them to develop good works habit.So it is another important tips for maintaining the good habit.
  • Never Give Up: This is the most important tips that maintains the good habit in our life.We all know that winners never quit and quitters never win.I think it is very true.We should make such a determination that will never let us to give from anything.We should not give up if we are failure in one side but we keep trying until we get success.If we give up then we never get what we want in the life. So to develop the habit of not giving up is the most important thing in our life which maintains the good habit.
  • Manage Money Wisely:Money is necessary thing in our life but it should be spent properly in right place or purpose.Is is also a good habit that we should save money, spend it in right place or purpose.If we make it habit then it will help us to make our future bright.Therefore it may be good tips.
  • Always Say The Truth:Truth is that thing which often comes whether we want it or not.So we should develop the habit of telling the truth even when it is difficult.This will save us from a lot of problems in our life.
  • Be Regular Reader:Being the good reader is the skill that gives us various knowledge of different things.So to be a good reader is also a good habit for evMost Important Tips for Maintaining The Good Habiteryone.The more we read more we get.Reading different books has numerous benefits.It helps us to built our career,expands our knowledge, our creativity etc.So we should make the routine of reading. Therefore it is important tips for maintaining the good habit to make the routine of reading.
  • Should Be Punctual:We should be punctual in every step in our life.For example,we should get up in time,go to school in time,eat foods in time, play in time,do homework in time etc.They all are the good habit.If we make this habit it will help us to make our life better.So we should create the habit of being the punctual now and we don't have to worry in the future.
  • Strive for Excellence:The another important tips for each and everyone is to strive for excellence for maintaining the good habit.We always look for excellence in everything that we are going to do it.We need to develop the habit of giving every task our best effort.Standard should be the standard we strive for in all we do.We should not be careless about what we do.Because if we do our best now, then it makes our life fruitful.So making the good habit of giving the excellence will ensure ou life and carry forward our life.

Thursday, June 9, 2011

The Important Project Management Fundamentals For The New Comers

The Important Project Management Fundamentals For The New Comers
First of all before the new comer enter into the project management fundamentals process,then the new comers should be well known about project management.So new comer know about what is project management?So lets discuss about it.Project management is the discipline of planning,organizing,securing and managing the resource ineffective way to bring the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives.In another words, project management is the application of the knowledge,skills,tools and techniques to meet the projects requirements of the projects activities.Project management is accomplished through various process such as initiation,planing,execution,controlling and closing.

Project Management Fundamentals:

The following discussion about the project management fundamentals is created by my own experienced and hope it is the best for all new comers who are keen about project management.

What is Project?

It is important to the new comer to know the project before start it.A project is the temporary endeavor,which is defined beginning and end, undertaken to meet the unique goals and objectives.It is totally different form the other task because that doesn't have the end date.Projects are run by different people and organizations.There are various constraints on the projects such as cost,budgets,schedule,resources etc.Generally the projects are divisible in to the stages and phases each with their own set of priorities and goals.

What is Project Management?

Project management is the discipline of planning,organizing,securing and managing resources to bring the successful completion of the specific project goals.Project management is a combination of techniques, procedures,people and systems focused on the successful completion of project goals.It also support the planning,implementation,control etc of the project.Project management is accomplished through the use of the various process such as initiation,planning,executive,controlling,closing etc.The Important Project Management Fundamentals For The New ComersSo the new comer should have proper knowledge about it.

What is Program management?

The another important project management fundamentals sector to the new comer is the knowledge about the program management.Program management is the process of managing different activities related to project, often with the intention of improving an organization's performance.It involves the centrally managing and controlling groups of related projects to gain the objectives of the program.In some cases, the project management is the subject of the program management.

Know About the Project Phases:

There are a lot of project phases which are the important project management fundamentals.They should be known well.They are Define the project,plan the project,implement the project plan,evaluate the project etc.The new comer should know about the different project phases.So it may be the important project management fundamentals to the new comer.

Understanding and Managing the Project Politics:

Projects also run under the politics.So The new comers have to understand each other feeling that they are jockeying to achieve the goals and this is the most important.Managing this politics is an essential task for the project manager and team member.The main task to manage the politics is the task of
The Important Project Management Fundamentals For The New Comers
keeping the people informed.The bigger the project the more time it takes to communicate the information.

Balance the Priorities:

The another important project management fundamentals to all the new comer is to balance the priorities.Because the project has the various priorities.Such priorities may be what should be achieved or what should be achieved if possible and what would follow from the previous choices etc.The new comers should keep in mind that the priorities of various stakeholders are different and they will vary over the time.So project manager should manage this job in effective manner.

Project Scope:This is very important aspects of project management fundamentals to the new comers.The objective of this step it to define the results that the customer expects.There are various ways or methods to understand what is really being asked for and that should be used in effective manner.To use this methods there are formal methods and documentations that help this process.This step is also the start of the recruitment process.

Project Risk:

Risk is very important factors in any project because there is saying no risk no gain.The main aim of this step is to identify and record the major issues that can affect the project.As the project progress the risk also progress, so the risk should be reviewed to ensure it remains comprehensive.In this process some item disappear while other will be added. There are uncertainties and difficulties in the projects.So this issues should be identified and solved very clearly to run the project properly.Therefore it becomes essential project management fundamentals to the new comer.

Project feasibility:

It is important to the new comer that project feasibility should be assessed before the projects starts.The new comer should consider weather the project is technically correct or not and new comer should also consider that it has organizational support and financial support or not.They should take the help of business case that is very useful with feasibility analysis and it includes the cost benefit analysis.

Project Deliverable:

The another important fundamentals stage of project management is the project deliverable.The New comer know that deliverable are tangible and measurable which the external shareholder will receive when the project is completed.They are equipments,completion of report,installation of raw materials etc.It is necessary to define the task of every project through various process such as work breakdown structure,product breakdown structure,organization breakdown structure,cost breakdown structure etc.Similarly good estimate are also necessary or the success of the project because they are useful for obtaining approval to start or continue a project and setting priorities.So it is important project management fundamentals.

Project Management Skills:

Project management skills is essential part of the project manager.Effective project management requires the following skills.
  • Project management knowledge competency:This refers to what the project management team knows about project management.The Important Project Management Fundamentals For The New Comers
  • Project management performance competency:This refers to what the project management team is able to do or accomplish with the project management knowledge.
  • Personal competency:This refers to how the project management team behaves when performing the project.
Interpersonal Management skills:

This skills includes the effective communication,influencing the organization,leadership,motivation,decisionmaking,team building,political and culture awareness etc.

The above mentioned ideas are very essential project management fundamentals to the new comers which is very important before the any kind of project starts.

Thursday, June 2, 2011

The Most Important Natural Causes of Climate Change In The Universe

Climate Change is the long term change in the statistical distribution of the weather patterns over the period ranging from decades to millions of years.Climate Change may be the change in the average weather conditions or the distribution of events around that average.Climate Change may be limited in the specific region or may occur across the whole universe.We know that the univers's climate is the dynamic and keeps changing in a natural cycle.The Climate Change occurring today because of the human activities, really makes the world very worried.

Many scientists are studying about these climate change all over the world or universe and they are finding the evidence from the tree rings, pollen samples, ice cores and sea sediments.The natural variability and the climate functions of the climate system are the parts of the earth's history but there have been changes in the concentration of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere growing at unprecedented rate. To understand the climate changes fully the ause of the climate change should be firstly identified. Here we can divide the causes of the climate change into two categorizes.They are natural causes an human cause.

Natural causes of Climate Changes

There are a lots of natural factors in the universe that causes the climate change in the world.Some of them are ocean currents, volcanoes,solar variations, earth's tilt etc. They are discussed bellow.
  • Volcanoes:When the volcano erupts it throws large amount of the sulfur dioxide, water vapor, dusts and ashes in the atmosphere.We know the volcanic activities remains for only a short period but the large volumes of the gases and the ashes influence the climate patterns for years.Similarly the millions of tones of the sulfur dioxide may reach the upper level of atmosphere from the major eruption and that gases and dusts particles may block the incoming ray of the sun. Tiny particles produced by the volcano are called aerosols because they reflects the energy of the solar back in to the space and they have the cooling impact on the world.Similarly the sulfur dioxide combines the water to form tiny droplets of sulfuric acid which are so small that can stay for several year.They are efficient reflection of the sunlight and screen the ground from some of the energy that would receive from the sun.Therefore the volcanic activities causes the climate change in the universe.
  • Ocean Current:The another natural factor that cause the climate change in the earth is ocean current because they are the major components of the climate system.We all know that they cover about 71% of the earth and absorb the about twice as much of the sun's radiation as the atmosphere or the land surface.Ocean current move vast amount of the heat across the planet and the same amount as the atmosphere does.Wind push horizontally against the sea surface and drive the ocean currents.The phenomena such as EI Nino produced by the interactions between the ocean and atmosphere, occur every 2 to 6 years. Similarly there are the deep ocean circulation of cold water form the pole towards the equator and the movement of the warm water towards the pole. This Process vital role to make the pole cold and the equator the warmer.The ocean can play an important role to determine the atmosphere of concentration of CO2.So change in the circulation of the ocean have great impacts on the climate change through the movement of the CO2 into or out of the atmosphere. Ocean current also change the direction or slow down.Much of the heat which escapes from the ocean is in the water vapour. the most abundant greenhouse gases.Water vapor also helps to create the clouds. Therefore the ocean current has the great effect on the climate change in the universe.The Most Important Natural Causes of Climate Change In The Universe
  • Solar Variation:We know that sun is the great source of the energy for the earth's system.Although the sun's energy comes constantly everyday as per the point of view, but the small changes over an extended period of time may lead the changes in the climate.As the sun is the great or fundamental source of the energy for the earth that is instrumental in our climate system. So it is reasonable to assume that change in the sun's output may cause the climate change.According to the scientific studies the solar variation had the great effect in the climate change in the past.Current global warming is incomplete without the solar variation.Because since 1750 the amount of the energy coming from the sun either remained constant or increased.The scientists have also observed that a cooling in the upper atmosphere and warmer in the surface and lower parts of the atmosphere.Because this is due to greenhouse gases.So we can say the solar variation can change the climate in various ways in the universe.
  • Continental Drift: According to the scientists South America and Africa were joined together many years ago, and all continents were all parts of the one large landmass.There are a lot of proof about it such as similarity between the plants and animal fossils and broad belts of rocks found in the eastern side of South America.The discovery of the fossils of the tropical plant in the Antarctica has made the conclusion that, this frozen land in the past must have been the closer to the equator, where the climate was the tropical.The continents which we know well or we are living today, were formed where the landmass began gradually drifting apart, millions of years back.This drift had also great effect on the climate change because it changed the physical parts of the landmass and the position of the water bodies.The separation of the landmass change the flow of the ocean current and winds the affects the climate system. Therefore the continentals drift has the The Most Important Natural Causes of Climate Change In The Universegreat impact on the climate change.So it is an important natural causes that affects the whole universal climate.
  • Earth Orbital Change:The another natural factor in the universe that affects the climate change is the earth's tilt.We all know that the earth makes a full orbit around sun each year.It is titled at the angel of 23.5 degree to the perpendicular plane of its orbit path.So changes in the tilt of the earth may lead to the small but climatically important change in the position of the seasons. More tilt means warmer summer and colder winter and less tilt means colder summer and milder winter.Similarly sloe change in the earth tilt can lead to the small but climatically important change in the strength of the seasons. So it has great effect on the climate change.