Thursday, September 30, 2010

Level of management

Level of management
The management has following three levels.
  1. Top level management - It is at the head of the organization. It consists of the representative of the shareholders, the board of directer, the chief executive and senior executives. They are the ultimate level of authority in the operation of the enterprises. They set the objectives, define the goals, establish the policies, see that the policies are put into effect and judge the results.The functions of the top level management are as follows.
  • Determine the objectives of the business.
  • formulating broad policies of the business.
  • Taking important decisions.
  • Deciding the future line of action.
  • Assembling the resources needed to put the plans into operations.
2. Middle level of management - This level of management is concerned with the task of implementing the policies and plans formulated by top management. It consists of departmental, sectional heads and other executives officers attached to different departments. Function of middle level of management are as follows.
  • Interpreting and communicating the policies of the top level management.
  • Determining organizational set up of their departments.
  • Issuing instruction to low level management.
  • Motivating subordinates for higher productivity and rewarding them.
  • Recommonding revised and ammended policies of their departments.
3. Lower level of management - It is also known as first line management or supervisory management. This is made of forermen and supervisors, men and women who are only one step above the rank. They are responsible for the implementation of plans and strategies developed by middle level management. Following are the functions of lower level management.
  • Working as link between middle level management and top level.
  • Receiving instructions from middle level bosses and carrying out instruction in the day to day affairs of the business.
  • Assigning duties to individuals workers.
  • Maintainingg proper discipline and congineil atmostphere ib the works.

Emerging challenges for management

Emerging challenges for management
Management ca ever remain unaffected by the changes in the environment. Due to the significant changes in the outside world today's management is facing several challenges. They are as follows.
  1. Globalization - The world economy is becoming increasing global in character. Manager will be involved in the management of global organization. They will need to think globally and act locally. Today more than one fourth of all goods produced worldwide cross the national boundaries. So it is one of the main emerging challenges.
  2. Technology - Development of new technology has brought quickness, simplicity and effectiveness in managerial works. Management will need to manage changing technology effectively. So it has appeared as challenges.
  3. Social responsibilities - An organization should be responsible towards shareholders, employees, customers, society and nation. Now-days social responsibilities has become compulsory not a subject of discussion.
  4. Change management - Change is demand of time. In the complex and dynamic environmental context, change should also be brought in different aspect for organization.
  5. Cultural diversity - Education, tour, communication, experiences etc bring changes cultural norms and values of human. Different races, languages, custom, fashion and living style add diversity to it. Cultural norms and value go on changing, adding diversities which are great challenges.
  6. Empowerment - The manager should provide the works full control over their works by promoting self managed teams on encouraging maximum participation, more information is provided to employees to make them aware of problems of their organization.
  7. Quality - Now-days the qualities of the goods and services has become quality of their goods and services.

Wednesday, September 29, 2010

Characteristics of management

Following are the major characteristics of management.
  1. Management is a process - Management is an important process. the function of planning, organizing, directing and controlling are included in it. This process continues till the objectives set by the organization are actually achieved.
  2. Group of activities - Management is always based on group activities. For the achievement of enterprises goals, management plans, organizes, co-ordinates, directs and controls the group effort.
  3. Science and art - Management is both science and art.As management presents everything in easy and attractive way, it is an art. And management can apply principles of management in practice for the achievement of organizational goals, it is an art.
  4. Universal - management is an universal subject. its principles have come into practice universally. Management is necessary in all kinds of big or small business, socials, religious, political etc.
  5. Seperate identity - Management is a scientific system and art to have works done by others. Management conducted following laws, rules and regulations. Duties, authorities and responsibilities are already defined. The identity and existence of manager or staff. So the management have seperate identity.
  6. dynamic - The principle of management remains constant rather than static. The most important character of management is to agree to change in economics, politicals, legals, culturals, socials and technicals environment.
  7. Need of organization - management is needed to conduct an organization effectively. Predetermined goals of organization can be effectively achieved through the means of management. Management is impossible without organization because management comes into existence for conducting.
  8. Profession - Management is a subject of study . In today's business age its principles have become compulsory. So management is gradually changing into the form of profession.

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Important of management

Management has an important role to lead organization towards success. So the some of the important of management are as follows.
  • Acquisition and utilization of resources - It is necessary that the necessary means and resources such as men, materials, money, machine and methods are acquired and utilized effectively. This can be effectively and systematically done only by management.
  • Dynamic approach - Management is a dynamic subject. It develops new innovation and concepts of development. To be always able and ready to face challenges and meet demands of time is the dynamic approach of management.
  • Co-ordination - Good co-ordination should be maintained among activities, departments, levels and employees in order to achieve the organizational goals.For this the organizational interests, personal interest and hierarchical interests should be integrated.
  • Problems solving techniques - Management is an important subject to teach the technique of solving problems. It is also taken as a key for finding solution of problems. It develops different alternatives for solving problems and present new ideas to select best alternatives.
  • Controlling - Management also keeps control by comparing performances with the standards. if there is found deviations between performances and standard then necessary corrective action can be taken.
  • Personality development - Management has contributed a lot to the development of personal management and personality . It has developed a principle in the management and it includes training, tours, observations, study, research etc. So management has appeared as an important subject.
  • Facing the challenges - All the organizations are affected by both internal and external environment. It may be negative and positive . One should not always expect opportunity but also should be ready to face the challenges from environment. So the management plays important role to face the environmental challenges by scanning the environment.

Process of management

Planning and decision making,organizing and staffing, leadership and controlling are included in the process of management. They are discussed as bellow.
  • Planning and decision making - Management process starts with planning. In order to achieve the objectives of the business it is necessary that every factors of production like men, money, machine, materials and methods should contribute their maximum worth. It is must that every business activity must be well thought in advance as to who to perform, when, why and how it is to be done.So task of making plans is very important.The task of taking decision is one part of planning process which includes the task of selecting the best alternatives from various alternatives.
  • Organizing and staffing - The process of arrangement of necessary resources for the implementation of plan and management of individuals as well as collective activities is called organizing.While organizing, functions should be defined and right person should be assigned to right place.Necessary technology and physical resources also should be made available.
  • Leadership - The process making the staff support organizational goals and motivate them to work hard for the achievement of the plans is called leadership. Effective leadership needs for the organizational effectiveness. The task of motivating the staff to work and directing them to perform their assigned duties included in leadership. Leadership is compulsory in all levels of management.
  • Controlling - Controlling is also a major point that comes under the management process. It is the application of corrective measures to remove and prevent the weaknesses in the operation after identifying them by comparision of desired performance with actual performance.

Principe of management

Principe of management
The principle of management has been propounded through researches, experiences,observation and experiments. Such principle of management has become universally successfill in practice. so there are so many principles of management. The are as follows.
  • Division of work-According to this principle every jobs and its part should be identified and entrusted to the suitable persons. The quality and quantity of production will improve if every job is assigned to right persons.
  • Authority and responsibility - Authority and responsibility come together. If the authority has not been clearly defined; it cant be exercised. Similarly responsibility cant be effectively discharged without authority. So authority and responsibiliry each individual should be cl;early defined to perform their tasks.
  • Policy making principle - Clear policy is necessary for effective management .So it is one of the important principle to make clear and practical policy.
  • Principle of planning - The other important principle of management is to make plans. the plans give the decision at present about what to do, how to do,when to do, where to do etc.
  • Simplicity - According to this principle daily functions should not be lengthened unnecessarily. The process of production should be simple.Similarly the officials procedures also should not be lengthened.
  • Principle of control - It is another important principle of management. Controlling function plays very important role in management.The task of analysis and assessment of work whether they are accomplished or not , come under this principle.
  • Principle of improvement - We know business organization keeps running.So the structure of organization should be made flexible so that it can be improved according to time and situation.

Monday, September 27, 2010

Introduction of management

Introduction of managementIn a simple words management is the process of getting the things done through others. Management is a process,activity or an effort to control, coordinate and direct the individual or group effort for attaining the certain objectives. It can be defined as the group of persons who co-ordinate all the means and resources for the achievement of certain goals. In the business organization management plays a vital role. because without proper management of manpower,equipments,means and resources and capital, the organization cant get its objectives. Management provides necessary means and
resources for the organization and effectively mobilize them. So whether the organization may be small or big management is necessary to operate in a systematic way. Not any organization can be conducted effectively without management.

Management is necessary not only for business organization it also plays an important role in the life of human beings. In other words it is necessary in the behabhiou r of human beings . As we know simply the management means to make the arrangement of necessary things which we need in every step of our life. So each and every step of ou r life needs proper management of necessary things. Without it we cant be successful in the future. It makes various problems and difficulties easy for us. Even in the small probl ems, it is very necessary because it helps to provide necessary base.

Everywhere management plays vital role. So we can say that it is very necessary in business as well as in our daily life. It has become a part of our life. Withou t it everything becomes useless.

Introduction of mnagement