Monday, January 31, 2011

Optimum Performance Of Women At Work Environment By Reduce And Manage Stress

Optimum Performance Of Women At Work Environment By Reduce And Manage Stress
Women employee's stress can be managed if some efforts are made in a smart manner.Therefore make an attempt to discover the healthy change for Women.When women employee feel overwhelmed, they lose confidence and become irritable, making them less productive and effective and their work less rewarding.Beyond interfering with job performance and satisfaction, intense stress can also lead to physical and emotional health problems in women employees.

Woman's works stress is a subjective experience, it can be explained as pressure upon a women's employees psychological system which arises out of complexity of her work life.Stress in women basically upon a psychological set up, it also in turn affects her physical and behavioral system so she cant give optimum performance to the organization.

How the individual woman employee responds to the stressor depends upon her personality,her perceptions, and her past experience. Some stress on women is necessary in that it assests them in achieving both personal goals and work.However too much stress in women can make those goals harder to achieve.Every woman responds differently to stress. But some woman employee function well under significant stress while other doesn't.Stress is the reaction on women employee has to excessive pressure.The rapid pace of today life and everyone increased expectation mean that women have to tolerate more pressure now than ever before.Women stress is a condition arising from the interaction of the people and their jobs and characterized by the changes within the people that force them to deviate from her normal functioning.

Women stress can manifest itself in both a positive way and negative way. It is positive when the situation offers an opportunities for her to gain to something and it is negative when stress is associated with social, physical, emotional and organizational problems.Too much stress is might lead to decline in performance of the individual.Thus overall productivity and quality will suffer leading to reduce margin of profit.Stress in the workplace reduces productivity, increases management pressures, and make people ill in many ways.

Rational of research work:

Women and men both are responding differently to stress. Women also report having more to worry about each day. Men on average worried about three things on a daily basis.Women may suffer from mental and physical harassment at workplace apart from the common job stress.Sexual harassment has been a major source of worry for women in workplace since long time.Sexual harassment means to unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature that affects the job related performance of an individual employees.Job stress is a chronic disease caused by conditions in the workplace that negatively affect an individual's performance and overall performance.One or more of host of physical and mental illness manifest job stress.In some case job stress can be disabling.In chronic cases psychiatric consultation is usually required to validate the reasons and degree of work related stress.Women stress can be managed if some efforts are made in smart manner.Therefore make an attempt to discover the healthy changes for women.

Aims $ scope of present work:

Every women has multiple roles to perform successfully. A women is a work mother,wife,boss junior and friend and so on.In her diverse roles she comes into contact with stress as it is difficult to perform equally in all diverse role.It is necessary to control women stress in the initial stage itself. To have balanced approach to understanding work stress in work employee it is necessary to recognize that employment provides rewards that are both internal and external.Although increasing rewards of work can offset its stressful, the physical environment and the psychosocial condition of employment can have deleterious on women employees mental and physical well being.

Sunday, January 30, 2011

Using key performance indicators for effective project management

Using key performance indicators for effective project managementid=
The key to success of a business is dependent on good management information. Thus while monitoring profitability and cash flows, a business also need to keep its Key Performance Indicators key performance indicators under a tight check.

Key performance indicators are quantifiable measurements that reflect the critical success factors of an organization. Based on beforehand agreed measures, they reveal a high-level snapshot of the organization. They vary depending on the kind of organization they characterize; for instance a business may have a key performance indicators as the annual sales volume, while key performance indicators of a social service organization may have to do more with the number of people helped out. Moreover, colleges may have number of students graduating per year, as one of their key performance indicators.

Thus before any Key Performance Indicators are selected, it is vital to identify what the organization’s goal is, which are in turn dependent upon the its mission and its stakeholders. Consequently, key performance indicators act as a major of process towards these goals. Whatever they may be, they must be critical to the success of the organization.

The application of Key Performance Indicators provides business executives with a high-level, real-time view of the progress of a company. They may consist of any combination of reports, spreadsheets and charts. They may be sales figures, trends over time, supply chain information or any other long-term consideration which may be essential in gauging the health of the organization. However, it should be noted that Key Performance Indicators should not only reflect the organizational goals but should also be quantifiable.

For a Key Performance Indicator to be of any value there must be a way to accurately define and measure it. This is so because a key performance indicators may meet the criteria of reflecting the organizational goal, which may for instance pertain to being the most popular company. However, since a company’s popularity can not be measured or compared to others, therefore the key performance indicators would be useless.

Considerations regarding how a Key Performance Indicator is to be measured should also be established in advance. Definitions as to exactly how the indicator is to be calculated and whether it is to be measured in dollar amounts or units should also be specified. Moreover, it is imperative that the organization then sticks to these definitions from year to year in order to allow for annual comparisons.

After the Key Performance Indicator has been defined and a way to measure it has also been determined, a clear target has to be demarcated which should be understandable by everyone. The target should also be specific so that every individual can take actions towards accomplishing it.

Here it is needless to say that to achieve a particular target level of Key Performance Indicator for a company, every department has to work in synergy towards it. For this purpose, all the units of an organization need to define their respective key performance indicators which should in turn work towards accomplishing the overall key performance indicators of the organization.

It is important that after Key Performance Indicators and their relative components have been identified, they should be used as a performance management tool. Best ways to represent variance should be defined, eventually making sure that everyone in the organization is focused towards meeting target levels of the Key Performance Indicators.

Friday, January 14, 2011

Using Performance Appraisals to Enhance Employee Performance

Using Performance Appraisals to Enhance Employee PerformanceUsing Performance Appraisals to Enhance Employee Performance The annual performance appraisal is an opportunity to enhance employee performance and create greater success for the company and the individual Our intent is to explore how coaching skills can be used in creating a good performance appraisal experience for both the employee and the supervisor and how to keep good performance going throughout the year.

Start with vision.

It's important to start with vision: the company's and the employee's. What is the company vision? The company vision should be compelling and known by staff. When staff don't know the owner's vision for the company it is hard for them to help move it forward. Having a clear and compelling vision that employees can buy into provides a foundation for success.

But what drives the individual isn't the bosses vision, the company's vision, but their own compelling vision.

  • Employees can embrace the company vision but
  • True success comes from within and from personal vision
  • Personal vision should be compelling and tie into the company vision
  • Do you know your employees dreams and visions for their lives and career
Take time to create a vision.

If the employee hasn't thought about their vision, take the time to create a vision with them. Does their vision, their passion tie into the company vision? Can you as the supervisor help the employee to achieve their vision? What if their vision is your job? Well, that's great. As supervisors, managers and leaders part of our role is mentoring and developing our employees. It's great to have employees that are motivated to learn and grow. It's also great to have employees that know your job and can do it competently.

Compelling visions are personal, written in the present tense, as if they are happening now, and point to an exciting future। Encourage your staff to write their own compelling vision and share it with you.

Our current appraisal framework.

Often the manager talks about issues that the employee didn't know was coming. Today we are talking about how to re-frame the experience for both the employee and the manager. With the manager as a coach and partner committed to the employee's success the environment can shift. The goal is to re-frame the experience, creating a positive, goal oriented environment that thrives on success and enhancing performance. In working with many groups of people solving problems, when they focused on what was going well and built upon it they were more successful than when they worked on what the problems were that they were having and what they needed to improve. In focusing on solutions, they ultimately identified the things that needed improvement as well.

It's important to recognize your feelings about performance appraisals and to imagine the employee's perspective.

  • History of being an uncomfortable experience
  • Re-frame the experience & create a positive, goal oriented environment that thrives on success, enhancing performance
  • An opportunity to tune into the person and find out what is going on with them
  • Create a plan for the upcoming year.
  • Most individuals want to be successful
Use coaching skills to develop success and excellence.

Where are we at now? After you have created a compelling vision, find out where we are at right now, using five key coaching questions you can quickly get to where the employee is at. In these questions you have the opportunity to create powerful positive energy, find out what the gaps are and what the resources needed are. In talking about what would be ideal you are also focusing a bit back on the vision, but you are also pointing in the direction that you need to go - so how do we get there?

As the supervisor, I see my role as one of supporting my staff so that they can do their job, I'm their coach, their success partner and the person that is helping to get them the resources they need to do their job. As the director of an outdoor center, my job was to get the clients there, but it was also to make sure that our resources were there for the client, we had the infrastructure we needed to provide the service - the ropes course, trained staff, food for meals

Create plan for excellence performance.

You, the supervisor become the partner or the coach - coaching for success. In creating a plan focused on success for the employee, the manager begins to shift the paradigm to one of employee and coach/partner. As supervisors, our role is build successful teams and we have to have successful team members in order to do that. If we focus on creating success we are more likely to create it. Focus on the positive, the solutions. What's going right, how do we create more of it? In working with teams I have found that when I focus on what they are doing well and how we do more of it - we build on our success.

When we create goals that are SMART, we can measure them, and track their progress. If goals are soft, not measurable it becomes difficult to progress the plan or give any feedback. So, how do we make them measurable? Measurable is countable, how many, when, who?

Goal Planning

  • Goals tie into the company vision and the employees vision.
  • Goals Point to an exciting future.
  • They are positive, specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time bounded
Tips for Setting Goals
  • Start with the RESULT in mind.
  • Set SMART goals.
  • Make it easy to see the next steps.
Build in accountability

Building in accountability in your annual success plans is the key to success. How many performance appraisals have you had or have you done, that didn't get looked at until the next year?

You need to meet with people regularly and reviewing the goals. It's unfair to come at a staff person at the end of the year and say you didn't accomplish what we outlined in your plan. Yes, you can accomplish some things just by writing down the goal, but the level of accomplishment is usually lower than what we want in our companies.

  • The key to success is building in accountability through regular meetings, weekly or monthly
  • We often fall short on keeping a plan alive
  • Regular meetings that keep focus on the plan and keep it moving forward.
  • Celebrate success, write down accomplishments, build on success
Monthly accountability

Meet with staff at least monthly and review the plan. Bringing out the plan and talking about it, keeps it alive. If it is never mentioned it gives staff the impression that it wasn't that important and they don't need to work on the goals outlined. Remember the goals outlined are focused on creating better results for the company. You want that. Focus on the plan. At the monthly meeting spend time to:

  • Review the vision
  • Review the accomplishments
  • Review the goals
  • Score each goal
  • When a goal is falling short use coaching skills to help figure out what the problem is and how to change it.
  • Does the leadership need to shift to provide more supervision, training, direction?

You are looking for success of at least 80%. If the person is in their own way, do they need to make a shift in their feelings, beliefs, paradigm, to move forward and get themselves out of the way. Are they choosing not to make the necessary shift. It's an opportunity to talk about choices that we make. We each operate from a place of personal responsibility. We are responsible for ourselves, our actions.

  • Measurable goals can be scored
  • Score the goals each month
  • If the goal is below 80% talk about what's in the way? Is the individual in their own way?
  • Go back to the five coaching questions.
Create a partnership

The monthly review of the PLAN gives you the opportunity to really check-in with staff and support them in developing success. It also prevents the annual performance review dread. They know you are invested in their success as well as that of the company. This is powerful. It develops you as a leader and partner of the staff member and lets you know where the focus needs to be. It also creates a regular stream of communication-both ways that can only improve results. Use the five coaching questions:

  • What's going right?
  • What makes it right?
  • What's the ideal, the vision?
  • What's not quite right now?
  • What are the resources needed?

Change Management Can Lead to Rigidity and Resistance to Change

Change Management Can Lead to Rigidity and Resistance to Change
Beware of formal organization improvement or "change management" plans. Like strategic plans, organization improvement or change management plans can reduce an organization's effectiveness. They can lead to rigidity, bureaucracy, and resistance to change.

This sounds like an argument against planning. It's not. We have found that constant and ongoing personal, team, and organization improvement planning is vital. But too many "change management" and improvement plans are built on the same faulty premise as strategic planning — that there is a right path, which can be determined in advance and then implemented. We often hear managers declare that they have the right strategic or improvement plan, but the reason things aren't going according to plan is because of "execution problems." This is a deadly assumption.

While there are many reasons for execution problems, one of the key problems is a top-down improvement plan or "change management" program. Because of their need for order and control, many rigid managers try to use "change management" or improvement planning to regulate and direct the random and chaotic events swirling around them. They aren't comfortable with letting their improvement plan and path to higher performance unfold and evolve toward their vision, values, purpose, goals and priorities. In other words, they think they can start with the answers. They're not comfortable with learning.

Other organizations and consultants may have been down a similar road to the one we're on. We have much to learn from their experiences. But we can't follow their path. If we have never been here before, we don't really know what the best paths and approaches are. Our improvement path evolves as we get to each fork in the road and get those people closest to the action to help make the most appropriate choices.

We need an unwavering strategic focus on where we're going. We need to set priorities, allocate resources, and put implementation schedules in place. But exactly how we get there can only be roughly sketched. Details get filled in as we go. Most of the problems and opportunities can't be anticipated and planned for in advance. We have to take advantage of the unforeseeable opportunities that will quietly present themselves as our journey unfolds. This is the paradox of strategic opportunism. It is the path of learning and constant improvement.

Building A Collaborative Workplace With Employee Communications

Building A Collaborative Workplace With Employee Communications
With a spurt of opportunities in the sunrise industries it is becoming increasingly demanding and difficult to keep employee morale at a sustained level.

Apart from company perks and benefits that employees expect, they look for a friendly workplace. Events and activities involving and revolving around them make the workplace interesting and collaborative.

That is where employee communications can play a key role.

Organizations of all types recognize the strategic importance of effectively communicating with employees irrespective of where they are located.
As a corporate communications or human resource executive, you may be interested in achieving the following:
  • Communicating corporate objectives and results to employees

  • Promoting productivity by communicating with employees regularly

  • Communicating breaking information to employees as it becomes available

  • Building a feeling of well-being and loyalty

  • Increasing interaction among employees and creating a strong internal brand awareness

  • Being able to reach the entire workforce simultaneously
A typical event should ideally encompass the entire organization using company wide resources, communication channels (newsletters, Intranet, e-mail network, notice boards, meeting rooms among others).

An event could be organizational (related to the company's history, milestones, achievements, people), situational/theme based (Children Day, Christmas Day), employee motivational (awards, cultural, sports, training, health awareness), intellectual (quizzes, knowledge management, creative arts) or social/environmental (paper saving, power consumption, water conservation, child care).

Conducting A Typical Employee Communication Event

Decide on an a type of event

Choose a date that does not clash with say, a public holiday or any important organizational activity that will undermine the effect of the event.

Prepare a plan for the entire event

This is the crucial part. The plan should include everything from budget, logistics to the timings of the activities.
Take for example - an Independence Day program for a company.

The following elements could form part of the communication mix:
  • A flag hoisting ceremony
  • A talk by a senior citizen of the city or a senior member of the company
  • A fun competition for employees
  • An employee pot-luck to raise funds for charity
  • An online quiz
Get senior management buy in

They need to be convinced of the return of investment or 'feel good' factor that arises from such events.

Once the buy-in occurs, the priority is to generate visibility for the event. Online and offline.

Plan also the post Event publicity via your company intranet and newsलैटर

Either keep a quality camera handy or get video coverage for posterity.
These images could later be replayed at a company event or printed as an article in corporate literature.

Create a checklist of roles and responsibilities

For the various groups and individuals involved in the event. For example, the administration and the human resources teams. No event is a one-man show.

Ensure there is an owner for the event

He or she should drive the activity from end to end. All requests and interactions should be routed through this person who would be responsible for maintaining timeliness and schedules.

Evolve the theme

For consistent branding and event recognition, all activities need to be strung together with a common thread. Arrive at a catchy name and a tag line, which sums up the event. Use a logo that can used - online and also as a printed version.

All communication should include elements of these designs.

Measure the events

Get employee feedback - formal and informal to gauge the effectiveness of the event and how it can be improved the next time around.

Making the event memorable

Use this opportunity to build the equity with your employees. Event 'take aways' could range from a CD - ROM to freebies like branded T-shirts and mugs.

Thursday, January 13, 2011

Risk Assessment A Business Strategy For Conducting Contingency Planning

Risk Assessment A Business Strategy For Conducting Contingency Planning

A Risk Assessment is recognizing, investigating, and furthermore considering every part of the possible risks, intimidation and danger to the businesses inside and outside environment. It determines if a facility (building) is susceptible to climate correlated events, HVAC breakdown, Internal/External Safety vulnerabilities and local area hazards. It permits a business to manuscript what extenuating measures have been in use to deal with these exposures. By means of recognizing the intimidation that at present are being militated against threats that are not, a business can accumulate a list of recommendations for enhancement.

On the way to be unbeaten, every risk assessment has to contemplate on the local identifiable problem linking to the business. Previous to discover other concerns, focus on top of the most realistic risks and intimidation that at present exist in the business setting. This can comprise factors such as:
  1. The Character of the Business.
  2. Nearby Vicinity of Facility.
  3. The Structure of the Facility.
  4. General Climate Patterns.
  5. Technology Reliance.
Purpose of the risk assessment
Throughout the Risk Assessment, risks to the business will be recognized and assessed. The susceptibility of the business to these risks will be rank. You will also:
  1. Recognize what deterrence practices are being utilized.
  2. Describe and put into practice safety measures to alleviate risks.
  3. Successfully negotiate the overall risk to the business.
  4. Assemble a case for strategy selections.

After the assessment is concluded, a business can make decisions regarding technique of extenuating risks. By carrying out a Risk Assessment and Business Impact Analysis, a business can put into practice the most excellent strategies for Contingency Planning.

Risk assessment procedure
Regardless of the deterrence practices utilized, possible vulnerability that are in existence and possibly will result in damage to the business have to be considered. Even supposing the precise nature of these exposures and their consequences are hard to find out, it is important to carry out a risk assessment of every part of threats that can logically turn up.

All locality and facilities be supposed to be built-in in the risk assessment. Encircle businesses, local fire, police and community utilities should also be integrated in the assessment. Any vendor offer service that is provided to the business should also be assessed.

Steps to follow
The subsequent steps are essential for carrying out a Risk Assessment.
  1. Recognize Threats/Risk and Vulnerabilities.
  2. Examine risks and find out vulnerability.
  3. Recognize alleviation and recovery options.
  4. Assess and Choose Preferences.

There are further procedures that need to take place during this process. Some of those proceedings are:
  1. Examine Internal Plans and Policies.
  2. Meet with Outside Groups.
  3. Make out Assets.
  4. Carry out an Insurance Review
Evaluate your risk
The course of recognizing risks/threats, likelihood of incidence, the susceptibility to every risk/threat and the potential impact that possibly will be trigger, is essential to get ready with pre-emptive measures and create recovery strategies. Risk recognition also endow with a number of additional advantages including:
  1. Exposes earlier unnoticed vulnerabilities that require to be tackle through plans and procedures.

  2. Recognize where pre-emptive measures are missing or need reevaluated.

  3. Can point out the importance of contingency planning to get staff and management on board.

  4. Will help in documenting inter-dependencies between departments and amplify communication between internal groups. Can also point out single points of malfunctions between critical departments.

For the simplicity of this process, categories of risk should be shaped to focus the thought process. In the Risk Assessment Survey, the most important categories consist of, Natural Risks, Man-Made and Environmental Risks. These are certainly not requirements, and should not be deem to be constraining.

The character of a risk/threat should be determined, regardless of the type. Factors to consider should consist of (but not limited to):
  1. Geographic Location
  2. Weather Patterns for the Area and Nearby Areas
  3. Internal Hazards ( Facility Security, Access, etc)
  4. Propinquity to Local Response/Support Units
  5. External Hazards (neighboring Highways, Plants, etc).
Possible exposures can be classified as:
  1. Natural Threats
  2. Man-made (human) Threats
  3. Environmental Threats.
Other steps in managing Risk Assessment are to analyze following points:
  1. Likelihood of Incidence.
  2. Susceptibility to Risk.
  3. Potential Impact.
  4. Pre-emptive Measures in Place.
  5. Insurance Coverage.
  6. Past Experiences
Results to analyze
The moment the Risk Assessment Survey and face-to-face dialogue have been conducted, the next process is to analyze and present the outcome so that
Decision-Making Management is able to acquire most use of the data. Analysis can be a time-consuming and monotonous process, particularly with huge amount of data, but it is vital to the RA process.

The analysis will be the groundwork for planning recommendations to senior management. The recovery strategies that require to be developed should be based on the result of the Risk Assessment Investigation and interviews, in addition to the Business Impact Analysis findings

Final report & presentation
Start your final report with managerial overview of the Risk Assessment Project. This will clarify the purpose of the project, what was in scope, and what approach was used. Then provide a summary review of potential hazards.

Formation of executive report
The findings from the Risk Assessment will outline the basis for the final report. The point is to provide senior management with an adequate amount of information to make them comfortable in sanctioning the recommending strategies, actions, budgets or to acknowledge the level of risk by not executing recovery strategies. The report should consist of graphs, which visually exhibit the findings. Do not overuse the graphs. Excessive graphs and reports can create reviewing the information perplexing. Make available graphs for overall information on the departments, financial impact, etc.

The final report should consist of:
  1. Prior Disruption History
  2. Risks & Vulnerabilities
  3. Pre-emotive Measures
  4. Presenting the Results
  5. Next Steps
The Risk Assessment process is an essential phase of Continuity Planning. The probability of a disaster impacting a business is unpredictable. The business should put into practice a wide-ranging Continuity Planning Program and build up recovery plans that comprise all vital operations and functions of the business.

Conflict Management Strategy Revealed

Conflict Management Strategy Revealed

Conflict is inevitable. No matter where you work, sooner or later you're going to find yourself in a disagreement with someone. We've all heard of disputes that erupt into expensive and divisive lawsuits. A simple personality conflict between two members of a team can cripple productivity and in the end leave the entire team feeling angry and betrayed. The following strategy describes a successful approach to resolving conflict.

The question then, is not "How can we avoid conflict?" but "How can we manage it?" If conflict can't be eliminated, we can at least deal with it constructively. Conflicts between work employees can spring from any number of sources; miscommunication, unmet expectations, feelings that one's contributions have not been acknowledged. Conflicts and disputes seldom have a simple cause, but they arise when people choose to make their differences into disagreements.

If conflict is the result of individual choices, managers that want to successfully manage and resolve conflicts must create an environment where employees can make the right choices. the optimum strategy depends on building the right group norms in the first place. If a employees are open to differences effectively to reach good decisions, then employees will be able to express differences appropriately and effectively resolve them.

The following items must be addressed and managed to successfully manage conflict.

Be Comfortable Dealing With Conflict Being open to disagreement is sometimes difficult. Most people are afraid of conflict. That's the reason for rules in the first place. But rules designed to eliminate conflict may allow situations to smolder and then erupt if employees do not have the opportunity to express their concerns. Much of the way you do that is not by trying to squelch the conflict and getting everybody to calm down, but by allowing everybody to voice their concerns. You can generally move people to a place where they are saying, "Okay, now what are we going to do about it?

Acting quickly to air the issues is better psychologically for all the employees as well. People do not like to be embroiled in conflict or have disputes, so the quicker it's over with, the better for everyone and the faster you can move on.

Find The Source of the Conflict

The tendency to look to some superior authority to resolve disputes frequently leads to unsatisfactory conclusions. Thus, the ability of employees to solve problems close to the source, at the team level, will also contribute to a healthy conflict resolution process. For example, if a factory manager walks around a couple of times a day to inspect whether people are bypassing the safety goggles, you will get people trying to conceal what they are doing. On the other hand, if a coworker who is working down the line from you is the safety contact person, there is no hiding what you are doing. And when that person says, "Look, don't be a fool", it's much closer to the source. It's a whole different kind of interaction.

Addressing the interests of the parties in conflict is also more likely to lead to a satisfying resolution. Very often people put things in positional terms, "I want him fired". With active listening, managers and dispute mediators can help move the disagreement away from demands and toward a discussion of each party's legitimate interests.

Lessons Learned

When employees are able to learn from the disagreement and apply lessons learned to new situations, they will be able to resolve those new situations more efficiently. This may be the toughest element to work with, especially on an organizational level. Most organizations have what can be thought of as serious learning disability. But on the team level the opportunity for learning may be less difficult. For example, you might have teams that have had a problem with unfair job promotion, so some people had more opportunity to qualify for higher pay increases. In those cases, where the conflict has been surfaced and then resolved and addressed by the team, there's a much higher chance that the next time somebody starts showing favoritism in those ways, the team will be able to say, "No, we dealt with this last year.

Conflict Do's

Practice some self recognition. Only rarely does a conflict arise without contributions from both parties. Very often people tend to project it, and say, "They made me do this". Employees should try to recognize when they are angry about a situation, and what their role in creating the situation really is.

Conflict Don'ts

Involve more people in the process than you need to. Gossip about a conflict can derail attempts to resolve it amicably.

Address the subject while you're angry. The resulting discussion probably won't be very constructive, and may have negative effects. Find an appropriate time to engage with the other person.


While conflict is inevitable, it doesn't have to be destructive. Management experts point out that you can't assume everyone is happy just because no complaints are being aired. Conflicts can seethe beneath the surface, working them out openly can create new opportunities for your employees.

The wonderful thing about dispute and conflict resolution is that when managed effectively, not only does it help to address many conflicts that can pull you down, but it liberates all sorts of energy. Conflicts constructively addressed not only avoid something that would have been otherwise festering and difficult, but they also usually lead to insights and opportunities that might no be seen otherwise.

Wednesday, January 12, 2011



Do you find yourself snowed under the amount and intricacy of thing you need to do every day? Do you often think that days and months pass by quite quickly and you don’t get much time to devote to necessary things?

Along with aggravated answers to above questions, you also know that time management is probably what is you need. So, here is it. Here are few time management tips that will definitely help you to do the necessary things, if not everything. And the good news is, it provides health benefits too. Stress level comes tumbling down and overall quality of your life is improved.

Here are few important time management. You don’t necessarily have to adopt each one of them. Try few amongst these tips; if it doesn’t serve your purpose, try other ones.

1. Daily Planning

This activity scares people away, universally. However, planning your day isn’t a lengthy procedure. You just have to prepare a precise to-do list, with most important tasks on the top. However, make sure you include everything you intend to do throughout the day.

2. Set Priority

Not all urgent tasks are important. Hence, you focus on urgent tasks and often delay the important one. This probably happens due to improper or no prioritization. Assigning priority to tasks ensures you spend your time and energy on important things rather than trivial ones.

3. Learn to say ‘No’

Our parents have taught us to say yes but that’s for helping needy people and other such social stuffs. When it comes to time management, you have to unfortunately say no. However, this wouldn’t disappoint your parents because by saying no to unnecessary or additional work, you stick to your plans and schedule.

4. Delegate Work

May be your to-do list has few things that you can pass on to others. This is commonly overlooked by people on managerial level. They can quite easily assign task to other people. However, delegating doesn’t mean imposing. It should be done aptly.

5. Spend more time doing important work

No, this will not disturb your schedule. If an important work is hurriedly done, it has many errors and correcting these mistakes consumes lot of time later. Hence, take time to do any work but do it correctly.

6. Make a note of how you spend your time

Because no one is watching us throughout the day, we waste much of out time doing unnecessary things. This is what you will probably notice after scanning your daily routine. Make a note of it and see how you can save time and spend it on other necessary, productive tasks.

7. Avoid Distractions

I agree not every distraction can be avoided. However, most of them can be easily limited. When you are involved in some important work, make sure you close the door, and switch off your pones and pager.

8. The 10 minute rule

Doing what you don’t like is obviously boring. Proper time management can solve this problem too. Spend at least 10 minutes every day doing dreaded things and gradually, you will start liking, or at least you will do it properly.

That’s it. These 8 time management tips, or few amongst them, are enough to maintain your schedule.

Tuesday, January 11, 2011



Whether you consider yourself a occasional procrastinator, or a terminal one, getting stuck in the mud occasionally - paralyzing your ability to act sometimes happens. While it's certainly useful to explore the reasons behind persistent procrastination patterns and resolve them, this article is intended to offer you 8 smart reminders, to free you up, and get you moving again. Here they are:

Recall your greatest vision. Your actions should always match the values you hold for your self and your business if they don't, you will find it hard to summon the energy to act. Find a way to bring each task into congruence with your vision -if you can't, ask yourself why you're doing it in the first place.

Once you're moving keep going. When you're inspired, act immediately. Create a short, written plan and avoid getting distracted. This will maximize your ability to accomplish. It's important to keep your plan simple and start with the most important task first giving you a sense of accomplishment. Balance the time spent planning with time spent doing and by all means -avoid over planning which is yet another clever method of procrastination.

Get tasks into your planner. Pretend your tasks are appointments with clients. Determine how much you can realistically do at a time and work it into your schedule. Don't leave tasks for when you have spare time. Work only as long as you stay interested and set a completion point for accomplishing each task. Completion points give you an end in sight to look forward to.

Chunk it down. Don't put any task on your list that takes more than 30 minutes. if it takes longer, it's actually a series of smaller tasks. Break each step out and list it separately. Remember, you don't have to tackle all the steps of a project in one sitting. Spread a large task out over several work sessions you will see greater progress as you check more items off your list.

Done is better than perfect. Don't try to do everything perfectly; perfectionism often causes procrastination rather than perfection, aim for progress any small step toward completion is an accomplishment.

Eat the Frog. According to Brian Tracy's book of the same title, do the worst task (or part of the task) first and get it out of the way. Once you tackle the part you are dreading, the rest is easy.

Make it fun. Make the project and also the environment enjoyable. Play your favorite music, open the window, Have a great snack, Also, give yourself the best tools and work space possible. Take a few minutes to organize your work space before you start so you feel good in the space. Always remember to reward your accomplishments, this will encourage productivity. Give yourself a break, a treat, a nap - whatever works for you.

Be accountable. Giving your word to someone else is a great tool to facilitate results. Remember, you don't have to do it alone. Find an accountability partner who will track your progress, problem solve, and celebrate success with you.

Sunday, January 9, 2011

How Change Mismanagement Crreated An Industry

How Change Mismanagement Crreated An Industry

Organizations do not change naturally as their business changes. The business changes while the organization remains static, building pressure for organization change. Eventually, there is reorganization upheaval that produces a new static organization, and another cycle of the change problem.

Over the past decade, many new business methods became popular, such as business process re-engineering, enterprise resource planning, and various methods of business transformation. Implementing these methods involved significant change.

With all this, most enterprises discovered a fundamental problem. They do not have a strong foundation for business change. Business change is a departure from the norm, they don’t have the proper resources, management doesn’t have the time, change objectives are not well understood, they have no change management capability, they need to reassign personnel to ad-hock projects, etc.

The lack of a strong change foundation prompted enterprises to use business change consultants to implement change. Consultants can alleviate some problems, but they cannot provide the foundation for business change. Consultant implementation methods that concentrate on solution implementation and performance improvement aggravate the problem of change.

Enterprises ended up with common business change problems. Management and staff resisted the changes, many changes were never properly implemented or utilized, and it was difficult to see where they had really benefited from change.

Recognizing the problem, business change consultants developed a new line of services called “change management”. But, the change management services did not address the fundamental problems of change mismanagement. The services addressed the symptoms of the problems in communications, behavior, outlook, etc. so that the fundamental problems remained for the next change.

So, enterprises added on additional change management services to solve the problems, or at least, some symptoms of the problems. Is this the answer, to create unnecessary problems and then hire consultants to alleviate the symptoms?

This is one of the issues that we are discussing at the Business Change Forum, in order to define problems with conventional methods and discover breakthroughs in enterprise management.

We only need change management services because we mismanage change. We mismanage change because of many factors.

  • We do not have the proper change objective, since the objective is to implement change rather than to benefit from change.
  • We implement the change solution rather than implementing methods that utilize the solution to gain benefits.
  • We do not organize for change, change comes from abrupt reorganizations of the way we do things rather than continuously as part of the normal routine.
  • We do not have a foundation for change, so change is managed by consultants with ad-hoc projects, improvement methodologies, lack of management support, no management of the return, and other problems that make success so elusive.
  • We do not manage performance capital properly. Most capital is unidentified or administered to keep it operating, rather managed for change, improvement, and utilization to produce benefit.
  • Development methods methodically create change management problems, since change is directed at improving user performance rather than enabling users to do new things they could not do before.
  • We have no systematic way to develop the benefits of change and the return on change investments. We can only systematically develop the cost of change.

We cannot solve the change mismanagement problem until we make fundamental changes to business change.

  • The most important thing is to organize for change. We need to eliminate re-organization and change automatically as what we are trying to do changes.
  • We need to understand how we create value through change and manage charge to produce the value.
  • We need to structure our performance capital to be managed in utilization rather than mismanaged through administration.
  • We need professionals to manage capital and change to our capital.
  • We need management acceptance of change through goals and expectations.
  • We need to follow a development method that includes people in the proper role, so that they benefit from development.
  • We need to integrate and manage the utilization of performance capital in practice.
  • We need to manage our own development as an enterprise and utilize consultants in partnership for successful change.

We need to develop each of the elements and capabilities as integral parts of our enterprise to reduce the enormous effort and cost of change mismanagement. Change mismanagement will continue until we structure the enterprise change foundation so that change is a natural part of the way we work.

How Change Mismanagement Crreated An Industry



This is a question that is asked quite frequently in today’s business climate. When this question was asked only a few years ago, the answer was much more clear and defined, because there were fewer professional coaches, less performance emphasis and pressure on a manager to coach his/her employees and fewer developmental programs to teach individuals how to implement the skill/competency of coaching. Add to this, very tight economic conditions in which professional coaches were a luxury that an organization could not afford and training and development in such a soft skill/competency as coaching was just not in the budget.

Before we begin, it is important to make the distinction between managers/supervisors that perform the skill/competency of “coaching” and “coach” their direct reports and professional coaches. It is also important to understand that because organizations are at different levels of development, there are many varied interpretations of this terminology. The resulting behaviors expressing “performance” of this terminology mean that not all elements apply to every organization, every manager or supervisor, every “coach”, or every Mentor.

Let’s start with the concept of the professional coach. Within the “organizational” context, this was an individual that was brought in, usually only for individuals at a more senior level within the organization. It was considered a perk or it was specifically focused on addressing a performance issue or preparing someone for a specific role from a succession planning scope. The “coach” in this case was usually an outside professional that was skilled and trained in this area and based on the level of the individual within the organization and/or the performance issue involved, these coaches were well worth the investment.

When profiling the skills/competencies that a manager or supervisor needed, “coaching” was one of the skills/competencies that always made the “list”. But in reality there was little developmental investment or performance emphasis on this specific skill/competency. Many times the term “feedback” and “coaching” were used synonymously. A common phrase was, “It is important to provide feedback to the individuals that report to you – you need to coach them.” It was as if you gave them “feedback” you were “coaching” them.

It is easy to agree that giving feedback is a vital part of coaching, but the single act of “giving feedback” is not the only element of coaching.

As economic conditions have improved, training and development budgets have increased, and organizations are beginning to realize that management skills/competencies and those soft skills/competencies such as “coaching” are just as important and can be measured just as easily as the technical or operational skills/competencies. There is much more of a focus on “coaching” and ensuring that a manager “coaches” his/her employees. But even with this new emphasis, development and actual implementation of this skill/competency within organizations is still widely varied. Those organizations that valued the development of these types of skills/competencies previously are well ahead of the game, while many organizations are still struggling with the dilemma of “theory” versus “practice” when deciding whether to target development and reward performance based on leadership, managerial and soft skill/competency focuses or technical and operational focuses.

As we look within organizations, it is clear that there are some managers that do “coach”, but “coaches” do not necessarily manage. Traditionally the term “Mentor” or “mentoring” was automatically associated with the soft side of development. The long-established focus was solely on "upward" mobility and that of career enhancing/career pa thing. Historically, individuals thought mentoring just sort of "happened” and having a Mentor was vital for many individuals if their desire was to advance to the most senior levels within the organization. In addition, many times an individual’s Mentor was that special “sounding board” or “confidant” that an individual went to for those issues that he/she didn’t feel could be discussed with his/her manager, supervisor or anyone with whom there was a reporting relationship.

The new focus of “mentoring” within an organization is with an emphasis on positioning such an initiative as part of the strategic business plan and creating specific processes to ensure success.

More and more surveyed organizations and executives are concluding that without some guidance there is “nothing surefire about finding a suitable Mentor”, or “ensuring the success of a mentoring relationship or a Mentoring Process” without a well thought out design or plan.

The role of a Mentor is now much more expanded to not only help sponsor and guide an individual’s career path and be a confidant, but to provide assistance and teaching in a specific skill/competency or knowledge area in a focused, planned and deliberate format. The historical definition of a Mentor focused solely on age, in some cases gender, job grade level and/or seniority within the organization. In addition, it was assumed that if individuals were good at what they did they would be good Mentors, Not so.

The new criteria that defines a Mentor has very little to do with this historical profile. A Mentor in the present context, needs to not only have the skill, knowledge, expertise, or experience in a given area, but must also be willing to share that skill, knowledge, expertise, or experience with another and have the skills/competencies to do so.

Such skills/competencies as listening, communication, interpersonal, and yes, coaching are vital in this role of Mentor. This criteria has nothing to do with age, gender, job grade level or seniority.



Change Management is a vital and a complex task. It requires dealing with the "system" as well as people in an organization to be competitive in a fast-changing technological world. To execute change an organization requires managers who can provide strong guidance with outstanding managerial skills.

Once the management identifies and plans to inculcate change, the following steps need to be followed for successful implementation:

Step1.Communicate the change...Communication acts as a mortar to implement the desired change. Communicate issues such as these need to be addressed by organizations:

  1. What changes need to be implemented?
  2. Why is change necessary?
  3. What are the consequences for the organization and employees by not adapting to change?
  4. What training needs will the organization provide?

By addressing the above concerns, employees can reduce unknown fear by reassuring the training availability for the new skills that need to be upgraded. In turn, it also acts as a motivational factor to implement change

Step2.Collate management and employees...This involves making managers and employees to voluntarily involve themselves in the change process. It requires enabling the manager to empower employees with the necessary learning according to the skill set that needs to be upgraded. Employees must participate in the learning program with enthusiasm and upgrade the required skill set.

Step3.Reward through performance tracking...Track the performance of the new skills implemented in the change process. To enable people realize that they are making progress in this area, acknowledge the change accomplished. Divide the target goal into short-term goals. Reward and celebrate short-term successful goals. This will enable organizations to subdue their critics and negative thinkers for successful progress in implementing changes. This will enable employees to get motivated.

Step4.Update ongoing process... Continuously, update employees through internal communication tools regarding meeting targets successfully. Initiate people to analyze the information regarding the success of the task and to give suggestions for improvement.

Step 5.Incorporate to the organizational culture...Implement changes into the organizational policy and structure. Ensure that you implement the required change into every aspect of the organization. This can be done by continuous monitoring and motivating managers and employees concerned till they get accustomed to the new process and make the change a part of the work culture.

According to analysis, it was found that while implementing change some employees will exhibit resistance. Subsequently, this may act as an obstruction to the implementation of successful change management.

Monday, January 3, 2011


Managing conflict with coworkers doesn't have to be difficult. In this article are eight simple rules that should both help you deal with conflict and improve your relationships at work.
Rule 1: See conflict as an opportunity
Our perception of conflict has a direct impact on how it plays out in our life. If we embrSIMPLES RULES TO RESOLVING CONFLICT AND IMPROVING WORK RELATIONSHIPSace conflict and see it as an opportunity to better a situation or a relationship, then we'll take on the challenge of seeing the confrontation through, regardless of how difficult it may be, because we know that the ultimate benefit of working through an issue will be worth it in the long run for both us and our working relationship with the other party.
If, on the other hand, we disdain conflict and would rather lie on a bed of sharp nails than address a problem with a coworker, we'll be more inclined to avoid it, mismanage it, or even deny its existence. In either case, our negative perception of conflict will prevent us from dealing with it effectively. Furthermore, avoiding conflict only makes it more likely that the issue will continue to be a source of contention with no end in sight.
Begin by breaking away from the following myths around conflict:
Conflict is negative.
Conflict is about winning and losing.
Conflict, if left alone, will resolve itself.
Conflict only impacts the parties in conflict.
By approaching conflict as an opportunity, any reluctance we have will begin to dissipate with practice as our confidence grows.
Rule 2: Choose our battles
Take on the issues that matter to we and/or that impede us from being as effective as possible on the job and let the rest go. Life's too short to be wasting any of our valuable time and energy on issues that ultimately don't matter or that don't impact us in a detrimental way.
Think through an unresolved or current conflict and do the following:
Identify the benefits of resolving the problem for us, for the other party, and for the people impacted by this conflict.
Identify the potential costs of not resolving the conflict for us, for the other party, and for the people impacted by this conflict.
Compare our findings. If the benefits outweigh the costs, then we need to address the problem, regardless how uncomfortable it might be.
Rule 3: Do our homework
The more prepared we are to address and resolve a conflict, the better we'll do. This includes taking the time to think through the problematic issue, personality dynamics, relevant past experience and desired outcomes before engaging in an authentic conversation to resolve a conflict with another party. It's no different than preparing for a speech or an exam. With preparation, we become more confident, focused, and in control of our emotions.
Always remember that the people who trigger us the most are often our best teachers. Why? Because these people bring out our vulnerabilities, insecurities, and hot buttons that actually end up revealing more about us than about them. That doesn't mean that our conflict is less legitimate, but just don't forget to include our self when examining the problem. We'd be surprised what we might learn.
If we find our self judging another person's actions without knowing the intent behind those actions, ask that person first what they meant or why they did what they did before attributing any motives to them. In order to achieve those outcomes, how do we need to be in the discussion so as to ensure the greatest chance for success?
Do we know what the problem is and are we prepared to propose a solution, if needed?
Are we willing to hear the problem described from the other party's perspective, including how we might have contributed to the conflict?
Are we willing to compromise in order to reach agreement?
Rule 4: Take the initiative
Conflict is not about who's right or wrong, who's more at fault, or who should be the first one to apologize to the other. The fact is that if the conflict is bothering you, then it is ours to resolve. Waiting for the other party to come to us doesn't help us address the problem; it only prolongs it. Keys:
Never hold on to an issue, a wrongdoing, or an unresolved conflict. Find a way to address it, resolve it, or let it go.

The benefits of taking it upon our self to resolve a conflict include:
We are taking care of our self.
We are not allowing a problem to fester inside of us.
Our are role modeling effective conflict resolution to our peers.
We are holding the other party in the conflict accountable for their actions.
Rule 5: Focus "out" before focusing "in"
Focusing "out" means understanding the other party's point of view before expressing your own. Why does this matter? Because it puts the other person at ease knowing that their concerns have been heard and validated. When people feel listened to and acknowledged, they have a tendency to relax and lower their defenses. This not only helps ease the conversation, but increases the likelihood that the other party will be more willing to hear your side of the story.
Why active listening is so important:
It allows the other party to vent.
It provides clarity for you on the problem from his or her perspective.
It validates the other party's concerns.
It shows we are willing to collaborate.
It helps diffuse any anger the other party may have.
It allows us time (since the initial focus is on them) to think through our response.
It provides us with information that we may not have had, allowing us to respond from a more informed perspective.
Rule 6: Seek mutually beneficial solutions
Successfully managing conflict means having the ability not only to bring an issue to resolution but also to do it in a respectful, collaborative manner with the other party. One without the other will greatly diminish our results.
If we always treat the other party in a conflict with respect, we will have discovered the quickest way to resolution.
If emotions are high, we are better off postponing a confrontation until we can be reasonable and rational. Unloading emotions might make we feel better, but if it is at the expense of coworker, we could end up making things worse.
Keep the discussion on the conflicting issue and/or behavior and stay away from personal attacks. By separating the issue from the person, you have a much greater chance for resolution.
Follow these steps when addressing a concern:
Begin by acknowledge the importance of having an effective working relationship with the other party.
Tell the other party that the purpose of our conversation is to share a concern that we feel is impacting our working relationship with them.
Describe the particular behavior that is causing a problem for us.
Talk about how to handle any potential problems together before they occur.
Always follow up with the other party a week or so later to ensure that things are working better.
Rule 7: Empower the third side
In a conflict, there's your side, there's their side, and there's the third side. According to William Ury, author of Getting to Peace, the third side in a conflict is all the people who are directly and indirectly impacted by someone else's conflict. Although many third-siders see themselves as innocent bystanders, they actually have a tremendous influence on establishing a work environment that either supports constructive and functional conflict resolution or reinforces dysfunctional and destructive conflict resolution.
As a team, work group and/or department, establish group norms and expectations around managing conflict effectively and productively.
Make sure that everyone understands his or her role in ensuring that norms are followed when conflict amongst members occurs.
Schedule biannual team building sessions to further develop working relationships while instilling a greater sense of team.
Establish and enforce consequences for any member of the group who disregards the established protocol for effective conflict resolution.
Rule 8: Be proactive
Instead of waiting for a conflict to occur before practicing these eight simple rules, why not start today by enhancing your working relationships and applying the concepts in this article to the smaller, more manageable office issues and disagreements. After all, the goal here is to develop some momentum and patterns of success now so that you'll be better prepared to take on any bigger, more volatile issues and conflicts in the future.
Be proactive both individually and as a work group, as follows:Individually:
Handle any and all issues when they occur.
Periodically check in with coworkers to assess how our working relationship is going and could be improved.
Role model the behavior we expect to see in others.
Schedule biannual team building sessions to further develop our working relationships, established norms, group communication, and team cohesion. Allow for any specific issues brought up by or affecting the whole group to be raised as well.
Learn more about each other's personalities and communication styles. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the True Colors Personality Profile are great in helping our work group better understand each other.
Conflict, if managed effectively, can be a tremendous asset in helping individuals and groups maneuver through issues, disagreements, and problems that are common in today's workplace. Hopefully, these simple rules will provide sufficient guidance and incentive to help our take charge of conflict forevermore.

Sunday, January 2, 2011


Existing structures seldom completely meet the anticipated needs of an organization. Most require some kind of ongoing modification if they are to be ready for new or expanded objectives and obstacles. Existing organizations reflect what the designers believed to be the needs of the enterprise at the time they were created.
Analysis of the benefits that should be provided by the structure may indicate that only slight modifications are needed. This of course allows for the creation of an ideal situation with a minimum of disruption. One or two positions may be created or a position may be moved a level or two in the hierarchy to meet a need. The nucleus of a specialized group may be created so that it is in place and functioning prior to an anticipated expansion.
The manager who must totally redesign an organization structure usually must proceed at a faster pace than the manager who need only modify the structure. The following sections look first at some of the alternative types of structures available to the manager, then present some advantages and disadvantages of each, and, finally, discuss some hazards to avoid when restructuring an organization.
Organizational structures are basically ways of dividing work. The critical question is which division is most effective. Six basic types are available, singly or in combination: function, product, customer, process, geography, and matrix.
Functional organization divides work into specific areas, each concentrating on one cluster of major objectives. Manufacturing companies are often structured along specialized functional lines and include divisions such as research, manufacturing, quality control, sales, finance, and personnel.
A distribution company that is functionally organized might be grouped to highlight sales, distribution, marketing, finance, personnel, and purchasing. An insurance company might be grouped to distinguish public relations, personnel, general counsel, secretary, investment operations, insurance operations, and sales operations. A consulting engineering and construction company might be divided into process engineering and the development, general engineering, procurement, construction, sales, and staff functions.
Different functional groups are prominent in different organizations depending on the objectives identified by the top manager. Each group concentrates on its own work, develops a high degree of efficiency, its own esprit-de-corps, and internal professional loyalty. There is a tendency to look on other functional groups as adversaries, which may be counter-productive to achieving overall objectives. Functionally structured organizations require a great deal of well-thought-out coordination by the top manager. One of the prime reasons for the failure of functionally organized enterprises to achieve their objectives is the lack of planned coordination at the top. Functional organizations usually provide opportunities for promotion at several levels for the personnel within the group.
The manager who must modify or redesign an existing structure should be aware of several design hazards as he tries to balance the optimum type of organization structure with the benefits needed. The following sections identify the more common hazards. Although it may be necessary to incorporate one of these structural elements into a design, the manager should do it only with a complete awareness of the disadvantages that each poses." Major design hazards include:
I. Creation of too many levels
a) Results in communication difficulties.
b) Is expensive.
c) Manager is far removed from the work, and organization is not responsive to directives. Difficult to get things done.
d) Authorities and responsibilities are too narrowly defined.
e) Managers find it difficult to get approvals. Decision making is slow.
Emphasis is placed on maintaining the status quo.
2. Duplication of Effort
a) Results in wasted effort.
b) Results in conflict between groups.
c) Results in confusion as to where to take a problem.
d) Authority relationship difficult to define.
e) Primary responsibility cannot be pinned down.
3. Different Objectives in the Same Group
a) Quality may be sacrificed for production.
b) Top manager loses checks and balances.
c) Production superintendent may not be able to balance conflicting objectives.
d) The caliber of final inspection may be lower.
4. Reporting to More than One Boss
a) Individual may receive conflicting orders.

b) Individual has priority problems.
c) Bosses may get into conflict over the individual.
d) Raises the question of who has authority to hire, fire, give raises.
5. Improper Designation or Use of Assistants
a) Role of assistant may be unclear and cause confusion.
b) Title can similarly cause confusion.
c) Determination of level of assistant on staff may lead to dissension.
6. Moses Complex

a) Manager's efforts are spread too thin.
b) One or more functions usually get neglected.
c) Coordination becomes a major problem for manager.

d) Manager may delay decisions.
7. One-Over-One - (Managers use assistant managers as buffers)
a) Third-level managers must get through two levels to get action.
b) Unless work is split neatly, there is constant duplication.

c) Top manager has little impact on third-level management.
8. Loads Out of Balance
a) One person is overworked.
b) Some functions under one manager may be neglected.
c) Only one manager has a chance to really understudy the plant manager.
d) Functions of managers may be over emphasized in respect to other service functions.
9. Misplacement of Function (Placement of a general staff department under a specific line department-e.g., Industrial Relations under Production)
a) Staff department will very likely serve only specific production department.
b) Product manager supervises group which serves other functions; may get into conflict of interest.
c) Staff department managers will be handicapped in relations with managers in other functions.
d) Managers in other functions will most likely try to set up their own service groups.
10. Improper Organization Emphasis (Placement of a unit too low or too high in the organization structure-e.g., Engineering reporting to Plant Manager and Production reporting to Engineering)
a) May result in illogical reporting or authority relationships-e.g., product subservient to Engineering.
b) Level of production groups will most likely mean lower salary levels hence, difficulty in attracting and keeping talent.
c) Relationships with other functions are hampered.
d) Plant Manager is remote from the critical.