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Thursday, June 23, 2011

Our Solar System Facts Formation And Discovery

Our Solar System Facts Formation And Discovery
The solar system is the combination of the sun and the astronomical objects bound to by gravity and all of which formed from the collapse of a giant molecular cloud around 4.6 billions years ago.There are many objects in the universe that orbit the sun and most of the mass is contained within eight relatively solitary planets whose orbit are almost circular and lie within a nearly flat disc which is called ecliptic plane.The four planets especially inner,Mercury,Venus,Earth and Mars are known as the terrestrial planets and they are primarily composed of rock and metal.Similarly the four outer planets, gas giant is the more massive than the terrestrials.The two big Jupiter and Saturn are made of hydrogeb and helium and the two outermost planets Uranus and Neptune are composed of ices like water,ammonia and methane and are also called ice giants.

Solar system is home for two regions populated by smaller objects.The asteroid belt which is in between Mars and Jupiter,is similar to the terrestrial planets as it is composed of rock and metal.The Neptune's orbit lie trans Neptune objects is composed mostly of such as water,ammonia and methane.Five individuals objects Ceres,Pluto,Haumea,Makemake and Eris are known to be large to have been rounded bu their own gravity within the two regions. They are also termed dwarf planets.In this two regions in the thousands of small bodies, various other small bodies populations like comets,centaurs and interplanetary dust freely move between these two regions.Humanity with the notable exceptions did not recognize the existence of solar system for many thousands years.People used to believe that the earth to be stationary at the center of the universe and different from the divine through the sky.

Structure

The main components of the solar system is the sun, a main sequence G3 which contains 99.86 percent of the system known mass and dominates it gravitationally.The sun's four largest orbiting bodies the gas giant account for 99 percent of the remaining mass with Jupiter and saturn together comprising more than 90 percent.The overall structure of the charted region of the solar system consists of the sun,four relatively small inner planets surrounded by a belt of rocky asteroids and four gas giants surrounded bu the outer Kuiper belt of icy objects.Sometimes the astronomers informally divided this structure into seperate structure.The inner solar system includes the four terrestrial planets and the main asteroid belt while the outer solar system includes the four gas giant planets which is beyond the asteroids.When the Kuiper belt is discovered, the outermost parts of the solar system are considered a distinct region which consists of the objects beyond Neptune.

According to the Kepler's laws of planetary motion the orbit of the objects or each object travels along an eclipse with the sun at one focus.Objects which are closer to sun move more quickly as they are more affected buOur Solar System Facts Formation And Discovery the sun's gravity.The orbit of the planet is nearly circular but many comment,asteroids and Kuiper belt object follow highly elliptical orbits.A body closet approach to the sun is known as perihelion and its most distant point from the sun is known as aphelion.Many representation of the solar system show orbit the same distance apart because of the vast distance involved.But with the few exceptions the farther a planet or belt is from the sun the larger the distance between it and previous orbit in reality.In the solae system, most of the planets possess secondary system of their own being orbited by planetary objects which is called natural satellites or moons or in the case of the four gas giants by planetary rings, thin bands of tiny particles that orbit them in unison.The inner solar system's objects are made of rock,the collective name for compounds with high melting points such as silicates,iron or nickel wich remained under the all conditions in protoplanetary nebula.Ices like water, methane,ammonia,hydrogen and carbon dioxide have melting points up to few hundreds kelvins while their phase depends on the ambient pressure and temperature. They can be found as ices,liquids or gases in various places in the solar system.

Composition

The Sun comprises all the matters in the solar system and it is composed of roughly 98 percent hydrogen and helium.similarly the Jupiter and Saturn that comprise nearly all the remaining matters possess atmospheres composed of roughly 99 percent of those same elements.A composition gradient,created by the heat and light pressure from the sun exists inthe solar system.The boundary in the solar system beyond which those volatile substances could condense is known as the frost line and it lies at roughly 4 AU from the Sun.


Tuesday, June 14, 2011

The Solar And Lunar Eclipses In The Year 2011

The Solar And Lunar Eclipses In The Year 2011
A eclipse means the partial or complete obscuring, relative to a designated observer of one celestial body by another or the period of time during winch such an obscuration occurs.In another words, eclipse is an interception or obscuration of the light of the sun,moon or other planet body, by the intervention of some other body, either between it and the eye or between the luminous body and illuminated by it.There may be especially two types of eclipse, they are lunar eclipse and solar eclipse.A lunar eclipse is caused by the moon passing through the earth's shadow and solar eclipse is caused by the moon coming between the sun and observer.The obscuration of planet or star by the moon pr a planet, though of the nature of an eclipse is called a oocultation.Similarly the eclipse of small portion of the sun by Mercury or Venus is called a transit of the planet.

There will be total 6 eclipses in the 2011.Four partial solar eclipse and two lunar eclipse will take place in the year 2011.Every year minimum two and maximum 5 solar eclipses take place whereas not over two can be total eclipses.As mentioned above four solar and two lunar eclipses take place which is very add as it is 4:2 grouping in only one year.In the 21 first century only 6 cases with 4:2 combination of the solar and lunar eclipses will occur in 2011,2029,2047,2065,2076 and 2094.First of all i am going to describe about the solar eclipse.

Solar Eclipses of the 2011:

Partial Solar Eclipse of the January 04.

This is the first solar eclipse of 2011 which occurs at the Moon's ascending node in the eastern Sagittarius.This partial solar eclipse will be visible from much of the Europe, North Africa and central Asia.The penumbra shadow first touches Earth's surface in northern Algeria at 6:40:11 UT and the shadow moves east, Western Europe will be treated to a partial eclipse.From the European cities like Madrid,Paris,London and Copenhagen, the eclipse magnitude will give early morning rises as excellent opportunities for the photographer.

The greatest eclipse occurs at 8:50:35 in northern Sweden with the magnitude of 0.858.At the same time Moon's shadow's axis will pass a mere 510 km above Earth's surface.A sunset will be visible from the central Russia,Kazakhstan,Mongolia and northern China and partial eclipse ends when the penumbra leaves Earth at 11:00:54 TU.

Partial Solar Eclipse of the Jun 01.

The next partial solar eclipse will occur when the center of the Moon shadow misses the earth and it is visible in the polar region of the Earth.This eclipse starts at sunrise in Serbia and northern China where the penumbra shadow first touches Earth at 19:25:18Tu.After the tow hours the greatest eclipse occurs at 21:16:11TU with magnitude of 0.601 which will be visible from the arctic coast of western Serbia.The partial eclipse will be visible from the Alaska and the northern Canada, the southern limit of penumbra falls along a curve from South of Fairbanks to central New Brunswick and Novascotia.The eclipses with 0.462 magnitude will be visible in the Reykjavik,Iceland just before the sunset.The partial eclipse ends at 23:06:56UT when the penumbra leaves Earth just north of Newfoundland in the Atlantic Ocean.

Partial Solar Eclipse of July 01:The Solar And Lunar Eclipses In The Year 2011

Just after the one month of the second partial solar eclipse the third partial solar eclipse take place which is visible over small area of the coast of Antarctica.This eclipse take place at the Moon's descending node in western Gemini.This is the first solar eclipse of Saros cycle 156 an eclipse cycle with nearly 6585.3213 days.It starts at 19:25:18UT and end 23:06%^ UT and the utmost eclipse, will arise at 8:39:30 UT with a magnitude of 0.096 at latitude 65degree09.5' longitude+28degrer38.9'

Partial Solar Eclipse of November 25:

This is the fourth and final solar partial eclipse of the year 2011.This eclipse occurs at the Moon's ascending node in western Scorpius.This will be visible from the high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere and Southern South Africa,Antarctica, Tasmania and most of New Zea land.This eclipse begins at 4:23:14UT and ends at 8:17:16 UT. The full eclipse will appear at 6:21:24UT with magnitude of 0.096 near the coast of Antarctica at latitude -68degree34.1',longitude+82degree24'.

So these are the four partial solar eclipse of the year 2011. Now the following are the two lunar eclipses of the 2011.

Total Lunar Eclipse of June 15:
The Solar And Lunar Eclipses In The Year 2011
This is the first lunar ellipse of the year 2011 which occurs at the moon's ascending node in southern Ophiuchus about 7degree west of the Lagoon Nebula.The Moon passes through the Earth's umbral shadow during this rather than long event.The total phase will last around 100 minute.The Moon's contact times with Earth's umbral and penumbral shadows are-penumbral eclipse starts at 17:24:34Ut,partial eclipse starts at 18:22:56 UT, total eclipse begins at 19:22:30 UT, greater eclipse starts at 20:22:37 UT, total eclipse ends at 21:02:42 UT, partial eclipse ends at 22:02:15 UT and penumbral eclipse ends at 23:00:45UT.The umbral magnitude will be 1.6998 at the instant of the greatest eclipse as the Moon's center passes within 5.3 arc-minutes of the shadow axis.The Moon's southern limb will be 32.8 arc-minutes from the edge of the umbra while the northern limb will be 22.3 arc-minutes from the umbra's edge.Therefore the northern side of the Moon than the southern regions that lie deeper in the shadow.It is really difficult to estimate the exact brightness distributions in the umbra so the observers are encouraged to estimate the Danjon value at the different times during the totality.This eclipse is visible from South America,Western Africa.In western Asia, Australia and the Philippines the lunar eclipse will appear just before the sunrise.

Total Lunar Eclipse of December 10:

This is the last eclipse of the year 2011 or total lunar eclipse which take place at the Moon's descending node in the eastern Taurus,four days after apogee.in it the Moon's orbital trajectory takes it through he southern half of Earth's umbral shadow.This lunar eclipse lasts 51 minutes although the eclipse is not central.The timing of the major eclipses phases are,penumbral eclipse begins at 11:33:32UT, partial eclipse starts at 12:45:42UT,total eclipse The Solar And Lunar Eclipses In The Year 2011starts at14:06:16,greatest eclipse starts at14:31:49UT,total eclipse ends at14:57:24UT,partial eclipse ends at16:17:58UT and penumbral eclipse ends at 17:30:00UT.At the instant of the greatest eclipse, the Moon lies at the zenith in the pacific ocean near gaum and the northern Mariana Islands.When the Moon's center passes 21.4 arc-minutes south of the shadow axis, the umbral eclipse magnitude reach at 1.1061.The Moon;s northern limb is 6.4 arc-minutes south of the shadow axis and 33.3arc-minutes from the umbra's edge.The northern half of the Moon will appear much darker that the southern half because of the Moon's southern limb lays 36.5 arc-minutes from the shadow center and 3.2 arc-minutes from the southern edge of the umbra,in contrast.because of the Moon;s samples a large range of umbral depth during totality its appearance will change with time.This eclipse event can be seen from Asia and Australia.But for the northern American the eclipse is in the progress when the Moon sets with western observers favored by a larger fraction of the eclipse before moon set.Since the early eclipse phase occur before moon rise the observer may miss this phase throughout the Europe and Africa.

Friday, June 10, 2011

The Most Important Tips for Maintaining The Good Habit

Most Important Tips for Maintaining The Good Habit
Habit that is an acquired pattern of the behavior that occurs automatically.Most of the life habitual. We do the same things that we did yesterday, the day before and every day.Habit may be good and bad but that makes us who we are.The most important things is controlling them.If we know how to handle the our habit then even small effort may change the big changes in the life.for example, students go to school to get education for the better or more prosperous life.But many of the habit should be truly be successful that are learned outside the classroom.Developing the good habit helps the individuals of all ages.So habit may both good and bad but here i am going to describe about good habit.If we make the routines of the developing the good habit that will help us to create the success for the rest of the life.They are the essential tool for our life to live better life. So each and everyone should make good habit in their life.Otherwise they will become the worthless person in the world.So i can say that good habit everyone needs for success.Following are the some of the important tips for the goods habit.
  • Eat a Healthy Food: We know that our brain is the most important organ, so it needs healthy diet to perform the activities at the peak.We can make a good habit about it.Like the students should not go to school without eating the food or with empty stomach.They should to be trained themselves early to eat balanced food.We should tend to carry the habits we learn when we are young forward with us for most of our lives.Because learning to eat right food now can avoid the many health issues in the future. So it is the first tips for maintaining the good habit.
  • Learn to Exercise:The another important tips that helps to maintain the good habit is to learn to exercise.Exercise is very important thing in our life. Because if we do regular exercise, it makes us healthy.So we should be active physically to stay healthy.We need to make exercise routines that are fun and match to our life.So developing the exercise routine is also the good habit that increases the quality or quantity of our life.
  • Developing the Good Habit of Study: Studying is a effective itself.We all are the lifelong learner in this universe.We should study and gather the knowledge in effective and efficient manner.Learning how to study and acquire the knowledge to succeed doesn't occur naturally it is the habit.So we should increase our skill and ask other to develop our good study habit. So it an important good habit tips.
  • Respect the Environment: Environment is very essential part of the life.So to respect the environment is another important tips for maintaining the good habit.Because we only have this one world and we depend on it for our survival.Everyone needs to protect the environment.So we should develop the habit that will help us to be good environmental citizens for lifetime.
  • Know What We Want to Make a habit:first of all we should be well known what we want to make a good habit. This is very important to every individuals.for example:if you want to play the flute, first you have to be well known about music that will make you better person.So to make you know the fact about good habit is also an important thing to maintain the good habit.
  • Get on a Good Schedule:We everyone need to make the routines and structure of everything.To perform the best we have to make the regular schedule. We should do everything in time according to our made schedule.If we are the parents then is is our job to teach this habit to our children early.Because this routine will stay with person their whole life and help them to develop good works habit.So it is another important tips for maintaining the good habit.
  • Never Give Up: This is the most important tips that maintains the good habit in our life.We all know that winners never quit and quitters never win.I think it is very true.We should make such a determination that will never let us to give from anything.We should not give up if we are failure in one side but we keep trying until we get success.If we give up then we never get what we want in the life. So to develop the habit of not giving up is the most important thing in our life which maintains the good habit.
  • Manage Money Wisely:Money is necessary thing in our life but it should be spent properly in right place or purpose.Is is also a good habit that we should save money, spend it in right place or purpose.If we make it habit then it will help us to make our future bright.Therefore it may be good tips.
  • Always Say The Truth:Truth is that thing which often comes whether we want it or not.So we should develop the habit of telling the truth even when it is difficult.This will save us from a lot of problems in our life.
  • Be Regular Reader:Being the good reader is the skill that gives us various knowledge of different things.So to be a good reader is also a good habit for evMost Important Tips for Maintaining The Good Habiteryone.The more we read more we get.Reading different books has numerous benefits.It helps us to built our career,expands our knowledge, our creativity etc.So we should make the routine of reading. Therefore it is important tips for maintaining the good habit to make the routine of reading.
  • Should Be Punctual:We should be punctual in every step in our life.For example,we should get up in time,go to school in time,eat foods in time, play in time,do homework in time etc.They all are the good habit.If we make this habit it will help us to make our life better.So we should create the habit of being the punctual now and we don't have to worry in the future.
  • Strive for Excellence:The another important tips for each and everyone is to strive for excellence for maintaining the good habit.We always look for excellence in everything that we are going to do it.We need to develop the habit of giving every task our best effort.Standard should be the standard we strive for in all we do.We should not be careless about what we do.Because if we do our best now, then it makes our life fruitful.So making the good habit of giving the excellence will ensure ou life and carry forward our life.

Thursday, June 9, 2011

The Important Project Management Fundamentals For The New Comers

The Important Project Management Fundamentals For The New Comers
First of all before the new comer enter into the project management fundamentals process,then the new comers should be well known about project management.So new comer know about what is project management?So lets discuss about it.Project management is the discipline of planning,organizing,securing and managing the resource ineffective way to bring the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives.In another words, project management is the application of the knowledge,skills,tools and techniques to meet the projects requirements of the projects activities.Project management is accomplished through various process such as initiation,planing,execution,controlling and closing.

Project Management Fundamentals:

The following discussion about the project management fundamentals is created by my own experienced and hope it is the best for all new comers who are keen about project management.

What is Project?

It is important to the new comer to know the project before start it.A project is the temporary endeavor,which is defined beginning and end, undertaken to meet the unique goals and objectives.It is totally different form the other task because that doesn't have the end date.Projects are run by different people and organizations.There are various constraints on the projects such as cost,budgets,schedule,resources etc.Generally the projects are divisible in to the stages and phases each with their own set of priorities and goals.

What is Project Management?

Project management is the discipline of planning,organizing,securing and managing resources to bring the successful completion of the specific project goals.Project management is a combination of techniques, procedures,people and systems focused on the successful completion of project goals.It also support the planning,implementation,control etc of the project.Project management is accomplished through the use of the various process such as initiation,planning,executive,controlling,closing etc.The Important Project Management Fundamentals For The New ComersSo the new comer should have proper knowledge about it.

What is Program management?

The another important project management fundamentals sector to the new comer is the knowledge about the program management.Program management is the process of managing different activities related to project, often with the intention of improving an organization's performance.It involves the centrally managing and controlling groups of related projects to gain the objectives of the program.In some cases, the project management is the subject of the program management.

Know About the Project Phases:

There are a lot of project phases which are the important project management fundamentals.They should be known well.They are Define the project,plan the project,implement the project plan,evaluate the project etc.The new comer should know about the different project phases.So it may be the important project management fundamentals to the new comer.

Understanding and Managing the Project Politics:

Projects also run under the politics.So The new comers have to understand each other feeling that they are jockeying to achieve the goals and this is the most important.Managing this politics is an essential task for the project manager and team member.The main task to manage the politics is the task of
The Important Project Management Fundamentals For The New Comers
keeping the people informed.The bigger the project the more time it takes to communicate the information.

Balance the Priorities:

The another important project management fundamentals to all the new comer is to balance the priorities.Because the project has the various priorities.Such priorities may be what should be achieved or what should be achieved if possible and what would follow from the previous choices etc.The new comers should keep in mind that the priorities of various stakeholders are different and they will vary over the time.So project manager should manage this job in effective manner.

Project Scope:This is very important aspects of project management fundamentals to the new comers.The objective of this step it to define the results that the customer expects.There are various ways or methods to understand what is really being asked for and that should be used in effective manner.To use this methods there are formal methods and documentations that help this process.This step is also the start of the recruitment process.

Project Risk:

Risk is very important factors in any project because there is saying no risk no gain.The main aim of this step is to identify and record the major issues that can affect the project.As the project progress the risk also progress, so the risk should be reviewed to ensure it remains comprehensive.In this process some item disappear while other will be added. There are uncertainties and difficulties in the projects.So this issues should be identified and solved very clearly to run the project properly.Therefore it becomes essential project management fundamentals to the new comer.

Project feasibility:

It is important to the new comer that project feasibility should be assessed before the projects starts.The new comer should consider weather the project is technically correct or not and new comer should also consider that it has organizational support and financial support or not.They should take the help of business case that is very useful with feasibility analysis and it includes the cost benefit analysis.

Project Deliverable:

The another important fundamentals stage of project management is the project deliverable.The New comer know that deliverable are tangible and measurable which the external shareholder will receive when the project is completed.They are equipments,completion of report,installation of raw materials etc.It is necessary to define the task of every project through various process such as work breakdown structure,product breakdown structure,organization breakdown structure,cost breakdown structure etc.Similarly good estimate are also necessary or the success of the project because they are useful for obtaining approval to start or continue a project and setting priorities.So it is important project management fundamentals.

Project Management Skills:

Project management skills is essential part of the project manager.Effective project management requires the following skills.
  • Project management knowledge competency:This refers to what the project management team knows about project management.The Important Project Management Fundamentals For The New Comers
  • Project management performance competency:This refers to what the project management team is able to do or accomplish with the project management knowledge.
  • Personal competency:This refers to how the project management team behaves when performing the project.
Interpersonal Management skills:

This skills includes the effective communication,influencing the organization,leadership,motivation,decisionmaking,team building,political and culture awareness etc.

The above mentioned ideas are very essential project management fundamentals to the new comers which is very important before the any kind of project starts.

Thursday, June 2, 2011

The Most Important Natural Causes of Climate Change In The Universe

Climate Change is the long term change in the statistical distribution of the weather patterns over the period ranging from decades to millions of years.Climate Change may be the change in the average weather conditions or the distribution of events around that average.Climate Change may be limited in the specific region or may occur across the whole universe.We know that the univers's climate is the dynamic and keeps changing in a natural cycle.The Climate Change occurring today because of the human activities, really makes the world very worried.

Many scientists are studying about these climate change all over the world or universe and they are finding the evidence from the tree rings, pollen samples, ice cores and sea sediments.The natural variability and the climate functions of the climate system are the parts of the earth's history but there have been changes in the concentration of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere growing at unprecedented rate. To understand the climate changes fully the ause of the climate change should be firstly identified. Here we can divide the causes of the climate change into two categorizes.They are natural causes an human cause.

Natural causes of Climate Changes

There are a lots of natural factors in the universe that causes the climate change in the world.Some of them are ocean currents, volcanoes,solar variations, earth's tilt etc. They are discussed bellow.
  • Volcanoes:When the volcano erupts it throws large amount of the sulfur dioxide, water vapor, dusts and ashes in the atmosphere.We know the volcanic activities remains for only a short period but the large volumes of the gases and the ashes influence the climate patterns for years.Similarly the millions of tones of the sulfur dioxide may reach the upper level of atmosphere from the major eruption and that gases and dusts particles may block the incoming ray of the sun. Tiny particles produced by the volcano are called aerosols because they reflects the energy of the solar back in to the space and they have the cooling impact on the world.Similarly the sulfur dioxide combines the water to form tiny droplets of sulfuric acid which are so small that can stay for several year.They are efficient reflection of the sunlight and screen the ground from some of the energy that would receive from the sun.Therefore the volcanic activities causes the climate change in the universe.
  • Ocean Current:The another natural factor that cause the climate change in the earth is ocean current because they are the major components of the climate system.We all know that they cover about 71% of the earth and absorb the about twice as much of the sun's radiation as the atmosphere or the land surface.Ocean current move vast amount of the heat across the planet and the same amount as the atmosphere does.Wind push horizontally against the sea surface and drive the ocean currents.The phenomena such as EI Nino produced by the interactions between the ocean and atmosphere, occur every 2 to 6 years. Similarly there are the deep ocean circulation of cold water form the pole towards the equator and the movement of the warm water towards the pole. This Process vital role to make the pole cold and the equator the warmer.The ocean can play an important role to determine the atmosphere of concentration of CO2.So change in the circulation of the ocean have great impacts on the climate change through the movement of the CO2 into or out of the atmosphere. Ocean current also change the direction or slow down.Much of the heat which escapes from the ocean is in the water vapour. the most abundant greenhouse gases.Water vapor also helps to create the clouds. Therefore the ocean current has the great effect on the climate change in the universe.The Most Important Natural Causes of Climate Change In The Universe
  • Solar Variation:We know that sun is the great source of the energy for the earth's system.Although the sun's energy comes constantly everyday as per the point of view, but the small changes over an extended period of time may lead the changes in the climate.As the sun is the great or fundamental source of the energy for the earth that is instrumental in our climate system. So it is reasonable to assume that change in the sun's output may cause the climate change.According to the scientific studies the solar variation had the great effect in the climate change in the past.Current global warming is incomplete without the solar variation.Because since 1750 the amount of the energy coming from the sun either remained constant or increased.The scientists have also observed that a cooling in the upper atmosphere and warmer in the surface and lower parts of the atmosphere.Because this is due to greenhouse gases.So we can say the solar variation can change the climate in various ways in the universe.
  • Continental Drift: According to the scientists South America and Africa were joined together many years ago, and all continents were all parts of the one large landmass.There are a lot of proof about it such as similarity between the plants and animal fossils and broad belts of rocks found in the eastern side of South America.The discovery of the fossils of the tropical plant in the Antarctica has made the conclusion that, this frozen land in the past must have been the closer to the equator, where the climate was the tropical.The continents which we know well or we are living today, were formed where the landmass began gradually drifting apart, millions of years back.This drift had also great effect on the climate change because it changed the physical parts of the landmass and the position of the water bodies.The separation of the landmass change the flow of the ocean current and winds the affects the climate system. Therefore the continentals drift has the The Most Important Natural Causes of Climate Change In The Universegreat impact on the climate change.So it is an important natural causes that affects the whole universal climate.
  • Earth Orbital Change:The another natural factor in the universe that affects the climate change is the earth's tilt.We all know that the earth makes a full orbit around sun each year.It is titled at the angel of 23.5 degree to the perpendicular plane of its orbit path.So changes in the tilt of the earth may lead to the small but climatically important change in the position of the seasons. More tilt means warmer summer and colder winter and less tilt means colder summer and milder winter.Similarly sloe change in the earth tilt can lead to the small but climatically important change in the strength of the seasons. So it has great effect on the climate change.

Friday, May 27, 2011

Possible Solutions To Global Warming

Possible Solutions To Global Warming
Global warming is, generally, the rise in the average temperature of our planet earth's surface air and oceans. On the base of 2007 Fourth assessment report by Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change, global surface temperature raised by 0.74+o.18 degree (1.33 ± 0.32 °f) during the 20th century.The enormity of global warming can be daunting and dispiriting. What can one person or even one nation, do on their own to solve the climate change.But here are the some of the possible solutions for the global warming. They are as follows.

There are a lot reasons that cause the most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of 20th century, are the increase in the greenhouse gases, that result from human activities such as burning of fossils fuel and deforestation.A reduction of sunlight reaching the surface as a result of increasing atmospheric concentration of human made particulates is called Global Dimming that has partially countered the effect of warming induced by the greenhouse gases.This can be the possible solution to the global warming.

Individual choices may have the impact on the global warming.We all know that the humans are causing the global warming, that evidence is strong, but questions of what to do about it remain unclear.Economics,sociology and politics are all the important factors in planning to the global warming for the future.The earth would still warm bu the another degree of Fahrenheit, even if we stopped emitting the greenhouse gases today.But what we do today makes a big difference forward.So the scientists, depending our choices, have predicted that the Earth could eventually warm by as little as 2,5 degree or as much as 10 degree Fahrenheit in the future.

A commonly made goal is to stabilize the greenhouse gases concentrations around 450-550 parts per million or about twice pre-industrial levels.This is the point at which many people believe that the most damaging effects of the global warming or climate change can be avoided.In the present there is about 380 ppm concentration that means there aren't enough time to lose.According to the IPPCC, to reach this level, we should reduce greenhouse gases emissions by 50 percent to 80 percent of what they are on track to be in the next century.

We know that many people and government have already worked hard for the global warming and to cut the greenhouse gases effect and each and everyone can help for the global warming in this 21century.According to the researchers Stephen and Robert, they suggest that one approach that ''stabilization wedges'' and this means reducing the greenhouse gases emission from the variety of sources with technological available in the next few decades. rather than depending on the economics changes in a single state.This approach also suggested
Possible Solutions To Global Warming 7 wedges that could reduce the greenhouse gases emission and all of them together could control the emission at the approximately current level for the next half century, putting us on a potential path to stabilize around 500ppm.

There are so many possible wedges such as improvement to energy efficiency and vehicle fuel economy and increase in wind & solar power, hydrogen produced from renewable sources, natural gases and nuclear power.A process called carbon sequestration that is underground by fossils fuels and store form which there is possible to capture the Carbine dioxide emitted.

The another possible way to the global warming is that, reducing the gases that we emit the atmosphere, we can use the increase amount of the gases we take out of the atmosphere.Similarly we plant the various plant and trees.As they grow they absorb Co2.Increasing the forestland and making the change to the way we farm could increase the amount of carbon we are storing.

The another simple and easy possible solution to the global warming is to plant trees.first of all we should make the group in our neighbor then all together start campaign about the plant tree.we can plant different trees bared land and even in the private land.Trees planted in and around areas the storing carbon may provide much needed shade in the summer and reducing energy bills and fossils fuel use.

These are the most useful possible solutions to the global warming.We should be aware about the global warming from our place.Otherwise it will not only harm to the particular place but it may also destroy our beautiful world.

Wednesday, May 25, 2011

Causes of Inflation That The Whole world Is facing

Causes of Inflation That The Whole world Is facing
In simple words inflation means the rise in the general price level of goods and services in the economy over a period of time.It means when the general price level rises the power of the money buys fewer good and services.Inflation also reflects the erosion in the purchasing power of money. There are chief measure like, the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in general price index over the time to measure the price inflation.Inflation affects the economy positively and negatively in the world.The negative effects of inflation are the decrease in the real value of money ant other monetary items over the time, uncertainty over the future inflation may discourage investment and saving & high inflation may lead to shortage of goods.Similarly, the positive effects of the inflation are central bank can adjust nominal interest rates and encourage investment in non-monetary capital projects.

In general, there are two basic causes of inflation the the whole world is facing, they are as follows.

Cost Push Inflation

Cost push inflation occurs when the business respond to the rise in the production cost,but raising prices in order to maintain their profit margins. There are so many ways under it, they are discussed bellow.
  • Rising the imported raw materials costs caused bu inflation in the country as well as in the whole world which are heavily dependable on export of these goods or alternatively by fall in the value of the dollar in the foreign exchange markets.
  • Rising the labour costs caused by the wage increases which exceed any improvement in the productivity.This cause is very important in causing inflation in the world.This is important in those industries that are labour intensive.The firm that decide not to pass the higher costs onto their customer but in the long run, wage inflation tends to move closely with price inflation because there are limits to extent to which any business can absorb higher wage expenses.
  • Higher indirect taxes imposed by the government- This is also an important cause to the inflation in the world.For example a rise in the rate of taxes in the alcohol and cigarette, a rise in the standard rate of value added tax, an increase in the fuel duties and an extension to the range of the product to which VAT is applied.These taxes are levied those producers who depending on the price elasticity of demand and supply for the product, can opt to pass on the burden of the tax onto customers.If the government want to levy a new tax on aviation fuel, then this would contribute to a rise in cost push inflation.
These are the cost push inflation causes the whole world is facing in the present condition.

Demand Pull Inflation

The another cause of inflation the the whole world is facing, is demand pull inflation.It is possible when there is full employment of resources and when SRAS is inelastic.In these case an increase in the Ad may lead to increase in the prices.Under this demand pull inflation there are some points that cause the inflation, they are as follows.
  • A depreciation of the exchange rate- It has the effect in the rise of the price of imports and it also reduces the foreign price of UK exports especially.If the customers by the less imports while the foreigners buy more exports then AD will increase.Similarly if the economy of the country is at the full of the employment then prices are pulled upwards.
  • A reduction in the direct or indirect taxation-Consumer have more disposal income causing demand to rise, if the direct taxes are reduced.A reduction in the direct means that the volume of the income will increase or consumers can buy more volume of goods and services.So the both factors can take aggregate demand and real GDP higher .So it may causes the inflation in the whole world.
  • The rapid growth of the money supply- The another cause of the inflation is the rapidly growth in the supply of money.If the interest rate is low then the people may borrow the more money from the banking and financial institutions.Then consumer have more monetary power.Monetarists econoCauses of Inflation That The Whole world Is facingmists believe that the root causes of the inflation are monetary in particular when the monetary authorities permit an excessive growth of the supply of money in circulation beyond that needed to finance the volume of transaction produced in the economy.Thus inflation causes.
  • The another reason of the inflation in the world is the rising consumer confidence and increase in the rate of growth of houses prices. Because The both lead to an increase in the total household demand for goods and services. As a result inflation appears in the markets and gradually in the whole world.
These are the main causes of the inflation that cause the inflation not only in the particular country but also in the whole world.

Saturday, May 21, 2011

The Latest Technology Inventions

Technology is the process of making, usage & knowledge of tools. system or methods of organizing to sole the problems.Technology greatly affects human and other animal ability to adapt to their natural environment.The use of technology has been significantly changing day by day in this modern age.So now-days latest technology has been taking place in this age.Among them there are the latest model of technology inventions presented the following.

Samsung S8500

Samsung S8500 wave is the latest touch screen
Samsung S8500
mobile from the house Samsung.This latest handset invention is the essential device to all the new born technology features and it becomes one of the best selling mobile phones around the world.This includes following features.
  • Samsung S8500 has both 2g & 3G networks.
  • This latest gadgets is packed with the smart dimensions of 56 x 188 x10,9 mm & easily portable with just about 118 gm in weight.
  • It also has the great 3.3 inches AMOLED touch screen which depicts the resolution of 480 x 800 pixel with 16 million colors.
  • It has another important features that is the camera with grand 5 mega pixel with Geo tagging, touch focus, image stabilizing, blink and face detection that allows us to captures our all unforgettable moments in to it with 2592 x 1944 pixel.
  • This technology also has video formats with MP4.H263,Xvid that allows us to easily enjoy our all favorite movies.
  • Furthermore, this latest technology is fitted with great Li-Ion 1500MAH battery up to 600 hours in standby mode and up to of 15 hours talk time on 2G and up to 7 hours talk time up to 550 hours on 3g in stand mode.
  • This latest gadgets also offers great squad band GSM 850,900,1800,1900 and HSDPA 900,2100, GPs navigation, 3G,EDGE, GPRS and wireless Bluetooth technology that allows the users to connect with other devices.

SONYPS3

Sony PS3 is the latest edition or the invention of the technology from the stable of Sony Ericsson.This technology has come in a trendy and compact design which attracts its users from its look. There are some features.
  • Sony PS3 has a slim and trim body looks with innovative features.
  • This technology invention has ATA 250 Gb in built hard drive that offers us a larger space to store our favorite things.
    The Latest Technology Inventions
  • Another enticing feature of this latest technology invention is that it has high definition picture with 1080p resolution and theater like audio quality that is up to &,1 channels of surround sound.
  • Further more with the help of Digital Living Network Alliance, the users can access the data stored in computer from PS3 system.

TOM TOM XL340

Tom Tom XL340 is the new & latest model or invention of the technology with slim , flat-folding and it also has easy port
GPS line.Some of the important features of this are as follows.
  • It has 4.3 inch screen WQVGA touch resistive display which dominates the front panel and offers the resolution of 480x272.
  • Similarly this latest technology has power button that is use to switch on and off on the top and at the bottom it includes mini-USB port.
  • This latest technology gadgets is fitted with the smart measurement of 4.7 x 0.9 x 3,2 in & a very light in wights with 7 oz.
    The Latest Technology Inventions
  • This technology invention also includes lug 7 go, emergency help.automatic routing. downloadable POIs,Tom Tom quick GPSfix, speed limit warning,Iq routes technology, text to speech, advance lane guidance,2D/3D map perspective and many more.
  • It is interesting that this latest technology invention includes IQ routes that uses to collect the previous data so as to calculated the fastest route.


Saturday, May 7, 2011

Predicament of a Hindu Secularist

Predicament of  a Hindu Secularist

Although a mildly religious Hindu, i wasn't completely taken aback our nation jettisoned Hinduism as a state religion and frenetically decided to accept constitutional secularism as the way for a pluralistic and multi-religious Nepal.This sudden and colossal change in Majority Hindu country, however consternating us, and left us with lingering doubts over the success of this metamorphosis.Two instances, since the secularization of Nepal by the interim constitution, have already fortified our doubts.first is the Prachanda led government's unsuccessful attempt at meddling with the appointment of Mul batta of the Lord Pashupatinath temple. Second the recent and the poignantly sensitive issue of altercation between Pashupati Area Development Trust(PADT) and Nepalese Christian community over the burial at the Sleshmantak forest in the Pashupatinath area. Noticeably so , both these disputes relate to Lord Pashupatinath, the most revered God of the Hindus.
Definition of secularism is highly contested. While a western and restrained notion of secularism means an erection of well of separation between religion and state, in its expansive practice, especially as it has in India, it also refers to absence of state religious institutions and doctrines and equal indulgence of all religions.Are these notion of secularism fittingly adopted in Nepal? A cursory examination of the act establishing the PADT will provide us with a negative answer.PADT is a statutory body created bu Pashupati Area Development Trust act of 1987 with an object to maintain, preserve and develop the Pashupatinath area because of the significance of lord Pashupatinath temple as a center of reverence of Hindu solely.Under the act the prime minister of the country is the patron of the trust,minister of culture is the chairperson of the governing council of the PADT, and other government bureaucrats and certain members of legislature- parliament are ipso facto members of it. It is apparent that the Act blatantly rejects every notion of secularism: there is a direct government control over Lord Pashupatinath and akin to this a Muslim mosque, a Christian church or a Buddhist stupa is not patronized by the government which is discriminatory.
A predicament surface now whether in line with imported notion of secularism, the Lord Pashupatinath temple should be severed from government instruction?Should Pashupatinath temple be transformed inti private Hindu religious endowment?There are certain merits in arguing for separation of Lord Pashupatinath temple from the state. First this will evince that the country is avowedly secular and not only on paper.Second, a separation will ensue the Lord Pashhupatinath temple will no longer be a state institution, but private Hindu religious institution. A striking advantage will be garnered out of this.Non- Hindu will be precluded from asserting their fundamental right, particularly their freedom of religion of practicing their beliefs and rituals within he defined area of the Pasupatinath temple which could possibly include the Sleshmantakforest. Third it will also to a certain extent, incapacitate the government from interfering with the appointment of priest and Mul Batta of the Pashupatinath temple. Fourth the wealth of the Pashupatinath temple will not be embezzled by the government and will not be used to fund non Hindu purpose.
It is unimaginable that a bigoted state like Nepal will disconnect itself from the management and adminitration of Pashupatinath temple area.The reasons are tremendous for not to do so.Nepal has been a Hindu state for time immemorial and this connection between state and lord Pashupatinath has been one of the vestiges of Nepalese Hindu monarchical tradition.Although monarchy has been abolished, it will be destructively challenging for Nepal to completely adhere to all imported notions of secularism and introduce severance of state and Lord Pashupatinath temple.Arguably the mandate of Janadolan ii was also not secularism. further disassociation of Lord Pashupatinath temple with the state will raise a tricky question as to which group of Hindu people should be allowed to administer the temple.It is possible temple funds will be siphoned off for private gains and mismanagement exist.

Thursday, May 5, 2011

Glowing face of Motherhood

Glowing face of Motherhood
Mother are not rare to find. It is pertinent question whose answer can't be contained within a few words.Mother comprise of a bundle of emotions that sometimes defy reasons.So this goes out to all the mothers who have kept awake all night with that sick toddlers in their arms, constantly uttering those compassionate words.A mother is the sent from above, another face of love and affection and someone to always count on. She is the one who held us in her arms, cradled us to sleep and sat late to see us study. No matter what path we work on, our mom walks along. For everything she has done and for everything she does unconditionally, here is a chance to show our love and gratitude to this magnificent lady on this day.

Every year we go to great lengths to celebrate motherhood. But what happens all through the year is pretty much what has transpired down the ages, with a few modifications necessitated by the changing face of motherhood. Even today mothers are either deified or devalued or subjected to contemptuous indifference.However though traces of the stereotype remain, it must be admitted that motherhood has today evolved to encompass much more than a domestic orbit.In its more dynamic avatar, urban motherhood, has, to a noticeable extent, effected the demise of the self-effacing and self-flagellating creature of the kitchen and the nursery, and the birth of a confident entity capable of meeting every challenge the larger arena throws up. Their outreach sm mother is far greater. They are guides,teacher, caretakers, breadwinners, a rue friends in need and what not.

But despite the enormous payoff, there is no mistaking that the grading drudgery still exists, and also the disillusionment when confronted with the brute realities of child rearing and the price we pay to stay moored.They still have to contend with internal contradictions between the ideas and the realistic. The past and present.What's more they insist on biting off more than they can chew, aspire to superwoman status, are reluctant to delegate, obsessed with perfection, and unable to ease the burden of expectations. This is inimical to our interests and they return to the point from where they ventured to empower themselves.

By echoing others thoughts and speaking in a voice not their one, they allow themselves to go to seed, looking for gratification and appreciation in the fact that they are taken for granted.Inn this they run the risk being marginalized later in life and ending up disappointed and decrepit empty Nester with no individuality. They must guard against this at all costs, because if they obliterate themselves for the sake of their children, they can never give them the sense of identity they need or be exemplary role models. There is no martyrdom or merit in uncalled for self-sacrifice.

Monday, May 2, 2011

Silent Sanitation Crisis In South Asia

Silent Sanitation Crisis In South Asia
Around 178 million people in South Asia out of the 1.028 billion practice open defecation and are exposed to severe safety and health risks as well as adding to environmental pollution.Women and children bear the major brumt of the crisis.About 500000 children die every year due to disease related to poor sanitation and hygiene and many more fall seriously ill, compromisin their future potential and overburderning the halth services.In addition to death and disease burden and its subsquent costs on the national economy, poor sanitaion is polluting environment and compromising dignity the very essence of human beings.

To address this challenge and find collective solution of these undignified conditions, countries in South Asia gathered in Bangladesh in 2003 under the umbrella of South Asian conference on sanitaion. In the last eight years hundreds of high government officials relevant ministers, sector actors and civil society met three times in Dhaka, Islamabad and Delhi in 2003, 2006 and 2008 respectively to find common solutions.This year more than 400 people from across South Asia met in Colombo to review the sanitation situation and progress made against previous commitments. Three previous conference have made a range of political and financial commitments including adopting people centred, community led and gender sensetive and demand driven approach, elimination of open defecation and other unhygienic practices.

No doubts, this eight years grive by SACOSAN to turn the trend and achieve millenium development goals has achieved several successes including recognitions of access to safe drinking water and sanitations as a basic right, raising sanitation profile at the regional level, formulation of national policies, strategies and plans, increase in sanitation coverage, broadening partnership. However, there are several critical areas committed above but have not been rally translated into concrete actions. This indicates the failure of the governance system,its responsiveness to the people's demand and a system accountable to the people.With the current rate of progress, the sanitation will not be achieved until 2028 too little and too late. Following are theimportant governance challenges if addressed might expedite the progress and lift millions of South Asians from undignified conditions and put them on the path of development, poverty reduction and prosperity.

Despite political commitment for establishing performance monitoring system, indicators are yet to be deided against which information collected provides the guide for better decision making. Improving sanitation information system to avoid any statistical disprepancies is also an essential element of strengthening monitoring and accountability. Due to the unavailability of clearly defined national performance monitoring mechanism, keeping track of the difference between building and use of services is quite difficult, so is the difficulty in sustaning the services without robust minitoring and clearly defined operations and maintenance roles and responsibilities.

Prioritizing sanitation including increasing the finance for sanitation and their better utilization, has gained recognition. There has been some increase in sector financing but in comparision to other sector and magnitude of crisis, it is still inadequate. Better coordination, broad based alliance and partnership and clear institutional mechanisms are the other areas repeatedly promosed. Better institutional arrangement, which is able to coordinate the function and build a broas based alliance for sanitation movement, and programming is central to success.Despite the commitments ans institutional importance, countries in the region are still strugling to determine the clear institutional home of sanitation.In very first SACOSAN people centered approach was recognized as sanitation is not just building toilets but it is the use of facilities as well as behavioral change.Centrally designed and delivered programs run a risk of remaining non functional and lack of ownership by the community and thereby unsustainable.giving real meaning to participation is still an area which requires urgent action for going beyond words to meaning.This calls for a revamping of the institutional mechanism that will allow for proactive community participation.

Total sanitation has been delayed in South Asia by a lack of focus development and particularly on people centered sanitation programs.Improved governances is central to address the challenge.The South Asian people want to see a governance system where decisions are informed by evidence and institutions, and decision makers connect to the people, where information flows freely, the poor get response and justice and equity are made values. If these governance principles are followed it may offer a better future for the South Asian children.

Wednesday, April 20, 2011

Why Should We Manage Scope And Costumer Expectation?

Why Should We Manage Scope And Costumer Expectation?

In project management the term scope has two instinct uses they are project scope and product scope.The work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product service or result with the specified features and functions is called project scope.The features and functions that characterize a product, service or result is called product scope.Scope management plan is one of the scope communications documents. The project scope management plan documents how the project scope will be defined, managed, controlled, verified and communicated to the project team and stakeholders. It also includes all works required to complete the project.


The important of scope management:


Scope management becomes one of the key activities once the project has entered the execution stage. I did a lot of discussion with my friends and others experts regarding the appropriateness of the scope management process on various projects. Some of them complained that their customers have treated the scope management process with the certain degree of hostility and their management is convinced that the procedure contradicts the best practices of customers satisfactions.while it is practically impossible to provide everyone with a universal framework that would fit the needs of any projects and i believe that the principles discussed in this article are applicable to all ventures, large and small, simple and sophisticated.The only difference would be the degree of formality associated with this methodology. On a small endeavor all the principles discussed below can remain at the verbal level with probably one summary exchanged between the parties.On the other hand on a very complicated mega projects there would be a lot documentation, formal meetings and sometimes sophisticated negotiations accompanying every change request.Consequently here we are targeting somewhere in between projects with as assumption that an experienced project manager would be able to fine tune the degree of formality to the project where he is working.
Managing Scope and stakeholder Expectations
One of the project scooping that i knew very recently contained a very interesting phrase.The difference between disappointment and delight is not a maters of delivery but of how well delivery matches the client's expectations. Therefore controlling customer's expectation is one of the key success factors, especially once the project has left the planning stage behind and entered the execution phase.There are several reasons behind the necessity to limit the stakeholders expectations. First because no matters how good one is at capturing and documenting project scope, no matters how many times team has inspected and peer reviewed the project documents, there will always be omissions, mistakes and errors.Since nobody on the project team is perfect the customer should be psychologically ready to accept that certain imperfection will rear their heads as we progress through the execution stage.A straightforward communication of this simple fact should limit stakeholder's expectations in a healthy way.

People and the project customers in particular are not always logical.To make this clear we can consider a time in our life when we or our significant other has saved a coupon from a hotel or restaurant chain to obtain a significant discount at the said business only to discover upon arrival that the coupon was valid only at participating outlets.On one hand especially from a legal standpoint this situation is completely the customer's fault.After all, he or she was expected to read the entire documents and arrive at proper conclusions.On the other hand however did the chain do a particularly great job of managing customer's expectations?Probably not since it doesn't take an experienced psychologist to know that the vast majority of people have a short attention span when it comer to marketing media and trends to ignore the small font at the bottom or on the reverse side of the coupons.

So we should remember that being logically or even legally correct is not the same making the customers happy.Some of the project managers including the author of this article like to include a section to the project management documents to explicitly state the features that will be excluded from the project scope.

Sunday, April 10, 2011

How Should The Project Manager Deal With Scope Creep?

Every project should have a set of deliverable an assigned budget and an expected closure time.There are agreed upon requirements and tasks to complete prior to the closure of project.These constitute the scope of the project. Any amount of variation in the scope of project can affect the schedule budget and in turn the success of project.How Should The Project Manager Deal With Scope Creep?
Scoping is the separation between what in included in and what is excluded from project. Scope creep occurs when the line is moved, usually outwards. Thus what was excluded is now included making a project in most cases larger.Scope creep is adding features and functionality without addressing the effects on time, costs, and resources or without customer approval.This phenomenon can occur when the scope of the project is not properly defined, documented and controlled.It is generally considered a negative occurrence that is to be avoided.

As my experience numbers of projects that failed due to the scope creep.We were not able to find out any formal statistics to refer to but we noted that majority of those projects failed due some form of scope creep.We should know one thing that a project may fail anytime it is over budget or does not meet the predetermined schedule deadline.

Scope creep can originate from:
  • Poor implementation of change control.

  • Incomplete gathering of requirements before the beginning of project execution.

  • Insufficient involvement of critical stakeholder.

  • Lack of support from the executive sponsor.
Scope creep can be classified as:
  • Technical scope creep.

  • Business scope creep.
The technical scope creep can show up when the project team wants to please the customers ans is not able to reject the customer's request for a change in the requirements during project execution.Gold plating is another reason which can cause technical scope creep. In this case the project team adds additional features and functionality that are not part of original requirements in order to please the customer.

The business scope creep occurs due to external forces that may be beyond the control of project manager.An example might be the continual changes in market trends which makes previously defined requirements .One can avoid scope creep by managing the scope of project effectively. There are a number of ways to control or avoid scope creep.They are as follows.

  • Involve the costumer and the end users early in the project.

  • Introduce a change control board team that would evaluate the risk of implementing the changes.

  • Make sure to involve critical stakeholders throughout the project phases.

  • Avoid gold plating and gain the ability to refuse changes in requirements with proper reasons and support

  • In extreme cases stop the project so that the new additional requirements can be properly scoped and integrated rather than tacked on.

Here we need to make two additional points. They are explained as follows. We need to be careful not to confuse scope creep with progressive elaboration.Progressive elaboration means developing the product in steps and continuing by increments. For example during early strategic planning when information is less defined work packages may be decomposed to the milestone level.As more is known about the upcoming events in the near term they can be decomposed into activities.

Secondly we need to note that the idea of scope creep has evolved in scrum. The product catalog is dynamic and it changes throughout the software product development life cycle as long as the customer feels that those changes add value to the project and accept the responsibilities for them. At the same time every attempt is made to make sure that scope within each scrum sprint is strictly enforced. This evolution of scope creep in scrum does represent some interesting problems which are beyond the scope of this articles.

Thursday, March 31, 2011

Decentralized Organization Structures Empower And Energize

Decentralized Organization Structures Empower And Energize
Decentralization is the process of dispersing decision making governance closer to the people or citizen. It includes the dispersal of administration or governance in sectors like engineering, management, science, political science,economy, sociology etc.Decentralization is also possible in the dispersal of population and employment.The more decentralized a system is, the more it relies on lateral relationships and the less it can rely on command. In most branches of engineering and economic, decentralization is narrowly defined as the study of markets and interfaces between parts of a system.Decentralization also called departmentalization is the policy of delegating decision making authority down to the lower level in an organization.A decentralized organization shows fewer tiers in the organizational structure, wider span of control and a bottom to top flow of decision making and flow of ideas.

High performing organizations that are thriving in today's chaotic world are adapting and pioneering a wide variety of highly decentralized structures. They are giving up control of people so that people can control their own and the organization's destiny.As my experience management career i have given people high degree of autonomy. I have run even small organizations to the point of such inefficient decentralization that people are running their own show.There are some reasons, they are as follows.
  • Every can see and manage their work as part of a whole, interconnected system, not a bunch part.
  • People are trusted and treated as responsible,caring and committed adults which is they cab behave.
  • A collection of small self contained teams or business units are many times more flexible and responsive at meeting threats and capitalizing on opportunities.
  • Ownership, commitment, energy and passion levels are much higher.
  • Everyone focuses on meeting customers.
  • Bureaucratic committees become entrepreneurial teams.
  • People have more control over their work.etc.
The fact is that when change falls it can almost always be treated to dysfunctional management.So before start the company institute, a company wide improvement program.Effective teams step back periodically to look in the mirror and review their progress. They look at what's working and what isn't.They adjust course accordingly.Strong team leader move beyond building a team of champions to building a championship team.

Saturday, March 26, 2011

Embrace Diversity To Build Effective Team

A team comprises a group of people linked in commEmbrace Diversity To Build Effective Teamon purpose. Teams are especially appropriate for conducting tasks that are high in complexity and have many interdependent sub-tasks.A group in itself does not necessarily constitute a team. Teams normally have members with complementary skills and generate synergy through a coordinated effort which allows each members to maximize their strengths and weaknesses.There are many types of diversity in the world and no one can understand all facts that the word diversity holds.By understanding the positive and negative impact on a group as an individual and in the groups people work and play with they can open their minds to the possibilities of what diverseness in an organizations, team ans individuals can achieve.The team therefore, avoids topics specific to any one religion in particular, opting instead to embrace the high moral standards associated with religion in genera. The team comprises a variety of professionals that work in a wide range of occupation.The team is stronger due to occupational diversity because of the different experience each team member offer.All of these diversity serves to enrich the team, by offering an array of unique experience,perspectives and insights that allows the team to operate effectively and to produce a more well rounded and diverse product as a result.

Turning a group into team is very challenging task that leaders face.We find ourselves leading groups of very diverse individuals in complex projects and tasks.A groups becomes a team when we treat them like a high level, high profile project.

Teams Outcomes Checklist:

  1. What is our suitable size?
  2. What skills do we need?
  3. How does each contribute to our organization?
  4. Are we really accountable?
If any of the above requirements are missed then we are working like a group than a team. Most of the organization need neutral,party to facilitate the problems solving sessions.They can ask about their individuals roles, purpose and objectives, ant they can see some of the potential interconnections.No number of a crew is praised for the rugged individuals of their rowing. Effective teams do not encourage superstars like others.They always look for ways to maximize their resources and build om each others strengths and diversity.On the surface i may seem easier to work with people of similar styles, thinking and background but diversity brings richness to a team.All the leaders and team members should have value,encourages and reward diversity. This means equal treatment and opportunity for people, ethic background, lifestyle and for both male and female.If our team doesn't have clear and measurable ground rules, we should hold a session to develop them.The ground rules can be used as basis for defining the team norms and expectations.The process uses personal values as the basis for the developing team ground rules.

Setting Ground Rules:
Before setting the ground rules we should be conscious about the following thins.
  • Individual list values.
  • Gain consensus on 3-5 values.
  • We should discuss why each value is important.
  • We should list how we can reinforce the value and what we should avoid.etc.
Respect is important on any team. It is needed to build loyalty and mutual trust.We can reinforce respect by seeking others input regarding decisions that may affect them.We should undermine respect when we change direction without giving others as explanations.

It is more manageable to set only a few ground rules at a time. when the team keeps its focuse on one or two areas the chances for success are greater.We should ask our team..what are the behaviors our team needs to focus on for the next time?The team ground rules cam be used for setting expectations on daily interactions.It is also effective for running better meetings and for project management.If our team is experimenting interpersonal conflict or lack of productivity, the chances are that ineffective leadership is playing a big role in the problems.We should not give up trying to turn our group into a real team.We should ask for help.It can often can be very helpful to get some leadership and team coaching.

Tuesday, March 22, 2011

Tips For Creating A Employee Performance Appraisal System

Tips For Creating A Employee Performance Appraisal System
The performance appraisal system has become a necessity for the large as well as small organization these days.It is well known fact that organization can achieve their set targets only with positive contribution from their employees. In order to contribute in a positive way, the employee need to be dedicated and knowledgeable enough to deal with the increasing challenges of today's business world. Performance appraisal is the method of evaluating the performance of the employee in given period of time.The result of performance appraisal can show how useful a particular employee is to the progress of the organization. The need of performance appraisal system is mainly to find out the area of strengths and weaknesses of the employees. The performance appraisal system involves setting of performance standards which can play the comparison of the performance of all the employees. Performance appraisal strengths ans weaknesses can help employees conduct a reality check on themselves and improve the performance. Here i discuss the necessary tips for creating employee performance appraisal system. They are as follows.
  1. In the first, the activities of top management should be involved in the process of creating employee performance appraisal system. Because Without top management's commitment and support, the program can't be succeeded.Top management establish strategic plans, identify the values, appoint the appropriate implementation team and mostly demonstrate the importance of performance management by being active participant i the process and use the appraisal results in management decisions.
  2. In the second,required criteria should be establish for an ideal system.Generally we should consider the needs of the four stakeholder group of any appraisal system such as appraiser who must evaluate the performance,appraisees whose performance is being assessed, HR professional who must administer the system and at last top management group that lead the organization into the future.
  3. In the third step, we should appoint the appropriate implementation team.The implementation team is responsible for accomplishing the tow major requirements for the successfull system. First they develop appropriate appraisal forms,policies and procedures.Second they assure a successful deployment.This task is a diagonal slice of both appraiser and appraisees from the different levels and function in the organization.
  4. In the fourth step we should design form and get a lots of feedback on it. firstly.For it appraisal form is suitable that will attract each and everyone's attention. We should not believe anybody who tells us that the form is not important.Because they are wrong.If we are designing a new form internally it will assesses both behaviors and results.
  5. In the fifth step,we should build our mission, values,vision and core competition into the form.The real objective of any performance management system is to make sure that the company's strategic plan, vision and values are communicated and achieved.Core competencies expected of all organization members should be included, described and assessed.If our mission statement is not clearly visible in the performance appraisal system,cynicism will result.
  6. In this step we should assure on-going communication.We keep the development process visible through announcement and regular updates.We should use surveys, float trial blooms and request suggestions.
  7. In the seventh step we should train all appraisers. Performance appraisal requires a multitude of skills, goal setting, developing people,confronting unacceptable performance,persuading, problem solving, planning etc.Unless appraisers training is universal and comprehensive, the program won't produce much.
  8. In this step we should orient all appraisees.The program's purpose and procedures must be explained in advance and enthusiastically to everyone who will be affected by it.We should provide special skills training if the new performance management procedure requires self-appraisal.
  9. In this step we should use all the results.If the results of performance appraisal are not visibly used in making promotion,development, transfer, salary, training, decision etc, people will realize that it's merely an exercise.
  10. This is the last step.In this step we should monitor and revise the program.We should audit the quality of the appraisal, the extent to which the system is used, and the extent to which the original objectives have been met.We should provide the feedback to the management.